Growth and Yield of Trees and Forests

Whatever one’s goals for their forestland, it is very useful to have an idea of what activities might help achieve them. This is the value of growth and yield modeling – by measuring numerous plots of trees across a wide range of site conditions and activity regimes, we then use those data and statistical techniques to accurately predict how future forests will develop. These prediction techniques help landowners decide what to do and understand what to expect – both ecologically and financially – from their actions.

What We Have Learned

Our collaboration with the Virginia Tech/North Carolina State Forest Productivity Cooperative and the Virginia Tech Forest Modeling Research Cooperative have helped develop the Loblolly Pine Decision Support System, which integrates a number of models to give foresters a user-friendly method of comparing the effects of different silvicultural options on forest structure and cash flow during the life of the stand.

Ongoing Projects

We continue to install and monitor long-term plots in conjunction with that project so that the models can be continuously updated with data from the most current genotypes grown under the silvicultural regimes being employed by today’s landowners.


Additional Resources

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Forest Research Review 2007-03
Forest Research Review 2007-03

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: the loblolly pine tree improvement program, competition control for shortleaf pine establishment, competition control for white pine establishment, pruning methods for urban trees, white oak crop tree release, tree-of-heaven control methods, yellow-poplar thinning response, and northern red oak planting.

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Forest Research Review 2008-04
Forest Research Review 2008-04

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: row orientation in loblolly pine growth, fertilizer x planting density effects on loblolly pine growth, varietal vs. open-pollinated loblolly pine, North Carolina and South Carolina families of loblolly pine in VA, longleaf pine establishment methods, longleaf pine provenances, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, and southern red oak crop tree release and fertilization.

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Forest Research Review 2008-10
Forest Research Review 2008-10

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: loblolly pine seed orchard management strategies, advances in pine plantation silviculture, longleaf pine grafting methods, competition control for shortleaf pine establishment, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, tree-of-heaven control methods, and northern red oak planting.

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Forest Research Review 2010-03
Forest Research Review 2010-03

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: loblolly pine site index, stem sinuosity in loblolly pine, longleaf pine establishment methods, American chestnut, effects of competing hardwoods on loblolly pine, white pine competition control and storage time, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, white oak crop tree release and fertilization.

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Forest Research Review 2010-10
Forest Research Review 2010-10

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: Forest Modeling Research Cooperative, potential for pine plantation woody biomass, stem forking in loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, loblolly pine growth after age two hardwood control, site preparation vs. release for loblolly pine growth, initial seedling size and establishment methods for northern red oak.

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Forest Research Review 2011-05
Forest Research Review 2011-05

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: thinning and fertilization in mid-rotation loblolly pine, loblolly pine planting spacing, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, timing of hardwood control in loblolly pine, longleaf pine provenance comparison, and white oak crop tree release.

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Forest Research Review 2012-08
Forest Research Review 2012-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: effects of pruning in loblolly pine, effects of planting density and fertilizer on loblolly pine growth, varietal vs open-pollinated loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, shortleaf pine provenance test, interplanting loblolly pine, tree shelter comparison for red oak in riparian buffers, crop tree release and fertilization of white oak and southern red oak.

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Forest Research Review 2013-08
Forest Research Review 2013-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: fourth cycle loblolly pine tree breeding, spacing impacts on loblolly lumber quality, fertilizer fate and carbon sequestration in loblolly pine, logging slash for skid trail stabilization, longleaf pine provenances, growth and value of low-density loblolly pine plantations, projected value of interplanted loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, growth and value of loblolly pine after site prep vs. release, hardwood plantations in central VA, tree shelters for northern red oak

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Nine-Year Growth Responses to Planting Density Manipulation and Repeated Early Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine Stand in the Virginia Piedmont
Nine-Year Growth Responses to Planting Density Manipulation and Repeated Early Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine Stand in the Virginia Piedmont

Report provides results of a study of two planting densities (363 and 726 trees per acre) and three levels of nutrient additions aimed at maintaining the current site index (SI25) of the stand (55 ft.) or improving the SI25 to 70 and 80 ft. None of the treatments affected survival or height during the first 9 years, but both affected diameter growth. Colleen A. Carlson, Thomas R. Fox, Jerre Creighton, Phillip M. Dougherty, and John R. Johnson

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No. 001 A Comparison of Tree Growth and Development Between a Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Plantation Growing on Nason Soil in Orange County, Virginia; by H. W. Bashore and R. L. Marler
No. 001 A Comparison of Tree Growth and Development Between a Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Plantation Growing on Nason Soil in Orange County, Virginia; by H. W. Bashore and R. L. MarlerOR-001

Report summarizes field data gathered in Orange County, VA in shortleaf and loblolly pine plantations.

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No. 002 Yellow-Poplar Growth and Yield Data on Selected Stands in Virginia; by R. L. Marler
No. 002 Yellow-Poplar Growth and Yield Data on Selected Stands in Virginia; by R. L. MarlerOR-002

Report provides field data on selected yellow-poplar stands gathered by the Virginia Division of Forestry in 1955. An effort was made to include field work measurements of existing plantings in addition to natural stands.

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No. 003 Early Tree Plantings Starting to Pay in Virginia; by R. L. Marler
No. 003 Early Tree Plantings Starting to Pay in Virginia; by R. L. MarlerOR-003

Report summarizes selected data from a 1954 survey of older tree plantings intended to provide information on how old tree plantings were when first thinned and the dollar value of those thinnings.

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No. 010 Comparative Growth and Yield of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine in a Mixed Plantation; W.F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 010 Comparative Growth and Yield of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine in a Mixed Plantation; W.F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-010

Report provides growth data from a 1937 Buckingham County plantation containing both loblolly and shortleaf pine that was thinned at age 19 and again at age 24, providing evidence of the more rapid growth of loblolly pine.

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No. 021 Yield of Planted Loblolly Pine in Piedmont and Coastal Plain VA; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 021 Yield of Planted Loblolly Pine in Piedmont and Coastal Plain VA; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-021

Report provides pulpwood yield information for planted loblolly pine in the piedmont and coastal plain of Virginia.

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No. 029 A Loblolly Pine "Super Seedling" Study; by R. W. Slocum, R. G. Wasser, and R. L. Marler
No. 029 A Loblolly Pine “Super Seedling” Study; by R. W. Slocum, R. G. Wasser, and R. L. MarlerOR-029

Report provides 11-year results of a study comparing the growth of loblolly seedlings selected as average and superior height in the nursery bed.

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No. 032 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Established by Direct Seeding; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. Marler
No. 032 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Established by Direct Seeding; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. MarlerOR-032

Report provides results of a study evaluating the effects of first-year seedling height and presence of secondary needles on subsequent performance of direct seeded loblolly pine after two to four growing seasons.

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No. 048 Height Growth of Planted and Direct Seeded Loblolly Pine; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 048 Height Growth of Planted and Direct Seeded Loblolly Pine; by T. A. DieraufOR-048

Report provides eight-year height growth of planted and direct seeded loblolly pines on piedmont and coastal plain sites.

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No. 049 Yield of Old Field Shortleaf Pine Plantations; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 049 Yield of Old Field Shortleaf Pine Plantations; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-049

Report summarizes yield data from 57 shortleaf pine stands in 40 different plantations in 25 different piedmont and mountain counties.

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No. 053 Does Interplanting Increase Yield?; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner and H.L. Olinger
No. 053 Does Interplanting Increase Yield?; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner and H.L. OlingerOR-053

Report summarizes 15-year growth of loblolly pines in a study of interplanting in old field plantations one, two, and three years after initial planting.

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No. 060 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 1; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 060 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 1; by T. A. DieraufOR-060

Report summarizes findings from three paired plots released from hardwood competition by hand chopping at age nine and measured through age 23. The basal area and volume response to release varied widely, but, on average, released plots had 18% more basal area and 15% more volume than check plots.

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No. 061 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 2; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 061 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 2; by T. A. DieraufOR-061

Report summarizes findings from eight plots released from hardwood competition by hand chopping at age five and measured through age 18. Released plots averaged 16% more basal area and 27% more volume than check plots.

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No. 065 Results at Age 23 of a Loblolly Pine Pre-Commercial Thinning Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 065 Results at Age 23 of a Loblolly Pine Pre-Commercial Thinning Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-065

Report describes effects of pre-commercial thinning in a four-year-old direct-seeded loblolly pine stand on long-term growth and yield. Treatments increased diameter growth and pulpwood yields through age 23.

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No. 067 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 3; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 067 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 3; by T. A. DieraufOR-067

Report summarizes findings from two areas released from hardwood competition by either hand chopping or mist-blowing herbicides at age two compared to no treatment and measured through age 19. Hand-chopped plots averaged 63% more basal area and 80% more volume than the check plots, and mist-blown plots averaged 29% more basal area and 25% more volume than check plots.

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No. 068 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 4; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 068 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 4; by T. A. DieraufOR-068

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by mist-blowing herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 19. Mist-blown plots averaged 25% more basal area and 28% more volume than check plots.

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No. 069 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 5; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 069 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 5; by T. A. DieraufOR-069

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by mist-blowing herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 21. Mist-blown plots averaged 78% more basal area and 91% more volume than check plots.

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No. 070 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 6; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 070 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 6; by T. A. DieraufOR-070

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by either hand chopping or mist-blowing herbicides at age five to no treatment and measured through age 22. Hand-chopped plots averaged 52% more basal area and 63% more volume than the check plots, and mist-blown plots averaged 19% more basal area and 17% more volume than check plots.

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No. 074 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 7; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 074 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 7; by T. A. DieraufOR-074

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by mist-blowing herbicides at age two to no treatment and measured through age 16. Mist-blown plots averaged 30% more basal area and 43% more volume than check plots.

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No. 075 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 8; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 075 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 8; by T. A. DieraufOR-075

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by mist-blowing herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 21. Mist-blown plots averaged 88% more basal area and 98% more volume than check plots.

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No. 076 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 9; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 076 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 9; by T. A. DieraufOR-076

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by hand chopping at age five to no treatment and measured through age 21. Hand-chopped plots averaged 109% more basal area and 153% more volume than check plots.

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No. 077 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 10; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 077 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 10; by T. A. DieraufOR-077

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by hand chopping at age four to no treatment and measured through age 22. Hand-chopped plots averaged 7% more basal area and 5% more volume than check plots.

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No. 078 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 11; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 078 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 11; by T. A. DieraufOR-078

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 17. Herbicide plots averaged 18% more basal area and 23% more volume than check plots. This report also introduced the pine free-to-grow classification system that has been used ever since in hardwood control studies across the South.

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No. 079 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 12; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 079 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 12; by T. A. DieraufOR-079

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age six to no treatment and measured through age 18. Herbicide plots averaged 41% more basal area and 39% more volume than check plots.

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No. 084 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 13; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 084 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 13; by T. A. DieraufOR-084

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 17. Herbicide plots averaged 68-70% more basal area and 91-99% more volume than check plots.

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No. 085 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 14; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 085 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 14; by T. A. DieraufOR-085

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 16. Herbicide plots averaged 22% more basal area and 35% more volume than check plots.

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No. 086 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 15; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 086 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 15; by T. A. DieraufOR-086

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 19. Herbicide plots averaged 31% more basal area and 53% more volume than check plots.

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No. 087 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 16; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 087 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 16; by T. A. DieraufOR-087

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 15. Herbicide plots averaged slightly less basal area and only 0.4 cords per acre more volume than check plots.

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No. 088 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 17; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 088 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 17; by T. A. DieraufOR-088

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 18. Herbicide plots averaged 10-16% more basal area and 13-23% more volume than check plots.

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No. 089 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No.18; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 089 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No.18; by T. A. DieraufOR-089

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 16. Herbicide plots averaged 29% more basal area and 48% more volume than check plots.

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No. 090 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 19; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 090 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 19; by T. A. DieraufOR-090

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age two to no treatment and measured through age 18. Herbicide plots averaged 54-76% more basal area and 67-103% more volume than check plots.

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No. 091 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 20; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 091 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 20; by T. A. DieraufOR-091

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 17. Herbicide plots averaged 17-32% more basal area and 28-65% more volume than check plots.

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No. 092 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 21; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 092 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 21; by T. A. DieraufOR-092

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 17. Herbicide plots averaged 28-29% more basal area and 48-66% more volume than check plots.

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No. 095 Comparison of Loblolly and Virginia Pine Yields; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 095 Comparison of Loblolly and Virginia Pine Yields; by T. A. DieraufOR-095

Report compares yields on 34 pairs of plots planted in 1966 and 1967, which shows that loblolly out-produced Virginia pine on 33 out of 34 locations and at age 19-21 most loblolly plots were ready for thinning while none of the Virginia pine plots were.

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No. 097 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 22; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 097 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 22; by T. A. DieraufOR-097

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by 1) hand chopping, 2) basal spraying herbicides, or 3) mist blowing herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 20. Herbicide plots averaged 6-12% more basal area and 9-13% more volume than check plots.

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No. 098 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 23; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 098 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 23; by T. A. DieraufOR-098

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 19. Cordwood yield response varied from +22% on the lower dilution rate to -17% with the higher dilution.

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No. 099 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 24; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 099 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 24; by T. A. DieraufOR-099

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 20. Herbicide plots averaged 11% more basal area and 18% more volume than check plots.

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No. 100 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 25; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 100 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 25; by T. A. DieraufOR-100

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age two to no treatment and measured through age 18. Herbicide plots averaged 169% more basal area and 215% more volume than check plots.

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No. 101 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 26; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 101 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 26; by T. A. DieraufOR-101

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 19. Herbicide plots averaged 22% more basal area and 38% more volume than check plots.

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No. 103 A Three-Year Loblolly Pine Direct Seeding Study: Yields at Age 24; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 103 A Three-Year Loblolly Pine Direct Seeding Study: Yields at Age 24; by T. A. DieraufOR-103

Report provides age 24 pulpwood yields on plots of a three-year study of eight direct seeding treatments (two rates x four sowing dates). Yields at age 24 ranged from 6.6 to 29.1 cords per acre, considerably less than would be expected from plantations at the same age.

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No. 106 A Three-year Loblolly Pine Interplanting Study on Site-Prepared Forestland; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 106 A Three-year Loblolly Pine Interplanting Study on Site-Prepared Forestland; by T. A. DieraufOR-106

Report provides 20-year results of a study comparing planting 824 trees per acre, 412 trees per acre, and 412 trees per acre followed by interplanting another 412 trees the following year. Interplanting had a negative effect on stand productivity, reducing average stem diameter and increasing the number of sub-merchantable trees.

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No. 107 Loblolly Pine Seedling Grade - Effect on Survival and Growth Through 20 Years; by T. A. Dierauf, J. A. Scrivani, and L. A. Chandler
No. 107 Loblolly Pine Seedling Grade – Effect on Survival and Growth Through 20 Years; by T. A. Dierauf, J. A. Scrivani, and L. A. ChandlerOR-107

Report summarizes 20-year growth of loblolly pine in studies comparing small, average, and large initial root collar diameter. Large seedlings survived only slightly better than average seedlings, but small seedlings suffered considerable mortality. Even if small seedlings had survived as well as the others, they would have produced significantly less volume.

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No. 109 Effect of Initial Root Collar Diameter on Survival and Growth of Yellow Poplar Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 109 Effect of Initial Root Collar Diameter on Survival and Growth of Yellow Poplar Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-109

Report summarizes 20-year growth of yellow-poplar as affected by initial root collar diameter.

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No. 111 The Paul Forest Hardwood Pre-Commercial Thinning, Study at Age 27; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Hodge, and J. A. Scrivani
No. 111 The Paul Forest Hardwood Pre-Commercial Thinning, Study at Age 27; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Hodge, and J. A. ScrivaniOR-111

Report provides results of a study comparing 27-year effects of pre-commercial thinning vs. no thinning at age 11 in a hardwood stand. Although thinning resulted in a 1-inch gain in diameter growth, it had not made much difference in either species composition or projected rotation age of the developing stand.

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No. 112 A Black Walnut Seed-Source-Elevation Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 112 A Black Walnut Seed-Source-Elevation Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-112

Report provides nine-year data from a test comparing 21 different seed sources of black walnut collected within a 100-mile radius but ranging in altitude from 480 to 2,400 feet. Altitude of source did not affect frost resistance but height tended to decrease with increasing source altitude.

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No. 118 A Study of Diameter Growth in Black Walnut Stands; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner, and J. A. Scrivani
No. 118 A Study of Diameter Growth in Black Walnut Stands; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner, and J. A. ScrivaniOR-118

Report provides results from diameter monitoring plots in 32 black walnut stands scattered over the piedmont and mountain regions of Virginia and 57 black walnut planting study sites.

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No. 123 White Pine Old-Field Plantation Yields Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani
No. 123 White Pine Old-Field Plantation Yields Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. ScrivaniOR-123

Report summarizes yield data from 59 plots installed in 48 different white pine plantations over a 30-year period that was used to construct volume tables and site index curves and project board-foot volumes.

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No. 124 Wide-Spacing Plantings of Loblolly Pine - Age 15 Results; by J. A. Scrivani and W.F. Bowman
No. 124 Wide-Spacing Plantings of Loblolly Pine – Age 15 Results; by J. A. Scrivani and W.F. BowmanOR-124

Report provides 15-year growth information on three locations of plots in the piedmont of Virginia planted with 200, 300, and 400 loblolly pines per acre. This study demonstrated that relatively low-density plantings of loblolly pine can result in well-stocked stands capable of supporting a merchantable thinning by age 15.

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No. 126 Factors Limiting Early Development of Riparian Hardwood Plantings in Page, Shenandoah, Warren and Rockingham Counties in Virginia (2010-2013)
No. 126 Factors Limiting Early Development of Riparian Hardwood Plantings in Page, Shenandoah, Warren and Rockingham Counties in Virginia (2010-2013)RR-126

Thousands of hardwood seedlings are planted in Virginia every year through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP). The plantings are inspected initially and again two to three years later to monitor success. Report summarizes the results of those inspections and underscores the influence natural impacts and maintenance can have on the success of planting.

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No. 132 Growth Projection and Discounted Cash Flow as Decision Tools for Loblolly Pine Silviculture
No. 132 Growth Projection and Discounted Cash Flow as Decision Tools for Loblolly Pine SilvicultureRR-132

Report provides projected yields from a study of the effects of competition control alternatives on loblolly pine growth were used to calculate present values of different scenarios comparing alternate rates of return (interest rates), rotation lengths, hardwood competition levels, thinning strategies, product prices, site qualities and establishment wait times.

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Rotation-Age Results from a Loblolly Pine Spacing Trial
Rotation-Age Results from a Loblolly Pine Spacing Trial

Report provides cubic-foot volume yields for particular product definitions from a 25-year-old loblolly pine spacing trial and shows how closely, in the absence of thinning, total and merchantable wood production are linked to initial spacing. The results of this study suggest that no single planting density will be optimal for all management objectives. Ralph L. Amateis and Harold E. Burkhart.

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The Development of Pine Plantation Silviculture in the Southern United States
The Development of Pine Plantation Silviculture in the Southern United States

Article reviews the contributions of applied silvicultural research in tree improvement, nursery management, site preparation, weed control, and fertilization to plantation forestry in the South. Thomas R. Fox, Eric J. Jokela, and H. Lee Allen.

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