Growth and Yield of Trees and Forests

Whatever one’s goals for their forestland, it is very useful to have an idea of what activities might help achieve them. This is the value of growth and yield modeling – by measuring numerous plots of trees across a wide range of site conditions and activity regimes, we then use those data and statistical techniques to accurately predict how future forests will develop. These prediction techniques help landowners decide what to do and understand what to expect – both ecologically and financially – from their actions.

What We Have Learned

Our collaboration with the Virginia Tech/North Carolina State Forest Productivity Cooperative and the Virginia Tech Forest Modeling Research Cooperative have helped develop the Loblolly Pine Decision Support System, which integrates a number of models to give foresters a user-friendly method of comparing the effects of different silvicultural options on forest structure and cash flow during the life of the stand.

Ongoing Projects

We continue to install and monitor long-term plots in conjunction with that project so that the models can be continuously updated with data from the most current genotypes grown under the silvicultural regimes being employed by today’s landowners.


Additional Resources

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Forest Research Review 2007-03
Forest Research Review 2007-03

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: the loblolly pine tree improvement program, competition control for shortleaf pine establishment, competition control for white pine establishment, pruning methods for urban trees, white oak crop tree release, tree-of-heaven control methods, yellow-poplar thinning response, and northern red oak planting.

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Forest Research Review 2008-04
Forest Research Review 2008-04

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: row orientation in loblolly pine growth, fertilizer x planting density effects on loblolly pine growth, varietal vs. open-pollinated loblolly pine, North Carolina and South Carolina families of loblolly pine in VA, longleaf pine establishment methods, longleaf pine provenances, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, and southern red oak crop tree release and fertilization.

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Forest Research Review 2008-10
Forest Research Review 2008-10

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: loblolly pine seed orchard management strategies, advances in pine plantation silviculture, longleaf pine grafting methods, competition control for shortleaf pine establishment, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, tree-of-heaven control methods, and northern red oak planting.

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Forest Research Review 2010-03
Forest Research Review 2010-03

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: loblolly pine site index, stem sinuosity in loblolly pine, longleaf pine establishment methods, American chestnut, effects of competing hardwoods on loblolly pine, white pine competition control and storage time, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, white oak crop tree release and fertilization.

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Forest Research Review 2010-10
Forest Research Review 2010-10

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: Forest Modeling Research Cooperative, potential for pine plantation woody biomass, stem forking in loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, loblolly pine growth after age two hardwood control, site preparation vs. release for loblolly pine growth, initial seedling size and establishment methods for northern red oak.

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Forest Research Review 2011-05
Forest Research Review 2011-05

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: thinning and fertilization in mid-rotation loblolly pine, loblolly pine planting spacing, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, timing of hardwood control in loblolly pine, longleaf pine provenance comparison, and white oak crop tree release.

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Forest Research Review 2012-08
Forest Research Review 2012-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: effects of pruning in loblolly pine, effects of planting density and fertilizer on loblolly pine growth, varietal vs open-pollinated loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, shortleaf pine provenance test, interplanting loblolly pine, tree shelter comparison for red oak in riparian buffers, crop tree release and fertilization of white oak and southern red oak.

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Forest Research Review 2013-08
Forest Research Review 2013-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: fourth cycle loblolly pine tree breeding, spacing impacts on loblolly lumber quality, fertilizer fate and carbon sequestration in loblolly pine, logging slash for skid trail stabilization, longleaf pine provenances, growth and value of low-density loblolly pine plantations, projected value of interplanted loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, growth and value of loblolly pine after site prep vs. release, hardwood plantations in central VA, tree shelters for northern red oak

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Nine-Year Growth Responses to Planting Density Manipulation and Repeated Early Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine Stand in the Virginia Piedmont
Nine-Year Growth Responses to Planting Density Manipulation and Repeated Early Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine Stand in the Virginia Piedmont

Report provides results of a study of two planting densities (363 and 726 trees per acre) and three levels of nutrient additions aimed at maintaining the current site index (SI25) of the stand (55 ft.) or improving the SI25 to 70 and 80 ft. None of the treatments affected survival or height during the first 9 years, but both affected diameter growth. Colleen A. Carlson, Thomas R. Fox, Jerre Creighton, Phillip M. Dougherty, and John R. Johnson

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No. 001 A Comparison of Tree Growth and Development Between a Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Plantation Growing on Nason Soil in Orange County, Virginia; by H. W. Bashore and R. L. Marler
No. 001 A Comparison of Tree Growth and Development Between a Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Plantation Growing on Nason Soil in Orange County, Virginia; by H. W. Bashore and R. L. MarlerOR-001

Report summarizes field data gathered in Orange County, VA in shortleaf and loblolly pine plantations.

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No. 002 Yellow-Poplar Growth and Yield Data on Selected Stands in Virginia; by R. L. Marler
No. 002 Yellow-Poplar Growth and Yield Data on Selected Stands in Virginia; by R. L. MarlerOR-002

Report provides field data on selected yellow-poplar stands gathered by the Virginia Division of Forestry in 1955. An effort was made to include field work measurements of existing plantings in addition to natural stands.

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No. 003 Early Tree Plantings Starting to Pay in Virginia; by R. L. Marler
No. 003 Early Tree Plantings Starting to Pay in Virginia; by R. L. MarlerOR-003

Report summarizes selected data from a 1954 survey of older tree plantings intended to provide information on how old tree plantings were when first thinned and the dollar value of those thinnings.

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No. 010 Comparative Growth and Yield of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine in a Mixed Plantation; W.F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 010 Comparative Growth and Yield of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine in a Mixed Plantation; W.F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-010

Report provides growth data from a 1937 Buckingham County plantation containing both loblolly and shortleaf pine that was thinned at age 19 and again at age 24, providing evidence of the more rapid growth of loblolly pine.

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No. 021 Yield of Planted Loblolly Pine in Piedmont and Coastal Plain VA; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 021 Yield of Planted Loblolly Pine in Piedmont and Coastal Plain VA; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-021

Report provides pulpwood yield information for planted loblolly pine in the piedmont and coastal plain of Virginia.

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No. 029 A Loblolly Pine "Super Seedling" Study; by R. W. Slocum, R. G. Wasser, and R. L. Marler
No. 029 A Loblolly Pine “Super Seedling” Study; by R. W. Slocum, R. G. Wasser, and R. L. MarlerOR-029

Report provides 11-year results of a study comparing the growth of loblolly seedlings selected as average and superior height in the nursery bed.

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No. 032 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Established by Direct Seeding; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. Marler
No. 032 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Established by Direct Seeding; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. MarlerOR-032

Report provides results of a study evaluating the effects of first-year seedling height and presence of secondary needles on subsequent performance of direct seeded loblolly pine after two to four growing seasons.

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No. 048 Height Growth of Planted and Direct Seeded Loblolly Pine; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 048 Height Growth of Planted and Direct Seeded Loblolly Pine; by T. A. DieraufOR-048

Report provides eight-year height growth of planted and direct seeded loblolly pines on piedmont and coastal plain sites.

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No. 049 Yield of Old Field Shortleaf Pine Plantations; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 049 Yield of Old Field Shortleaf Pine Plantations; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-049

Report summarizes yield data from 57 shortleaf pine stands in 40 different plantations in 25 different piedmont and mountain counties.

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No. 095 Comparison of Loblolly and Virginia Pine Yields; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 095 Comparison of Loblolly and Virginia Pine Yields; by T. A. DieraufOR-095Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationpublication
No. 126 Factors Limiting Early Development of Riparian Hardwood Plantings in Page, Shenandoah, Warren and Rockingham Counties in Virginia (2010-2013)
No. 126 Factors Limiting Early Development of Riparian Hardwood Plantings in Page, Shenandoah, Warren and Rockingham Counties in Virginia (2010-2013)RR-126

Thousands of hardwood seedlings are planted in Virginia every year through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP). The plantings are inspected initially and again two to three years later to monitor success. Report summarizes the results of those inspections and underscores the influence natural impacts and maintenance can have on the success of planting.

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No. 132 Growth Projection and Discounted Cash Flow as Decision Tools for Loblolly Pine Silviculture
No. 132 Growth Projection and Discounted Cash Flow as Decision Tools for Loblolly Pine SilvicultureRR-132

Report provides projected yields from a study of the effects of competition control alternatives on loblolly pine growth were used to calculate present values of different scenarios comparing alternate rates of return (interest rates), rotation lengths, hardwood competition levels, thinning strategies, product prices, site qualities and establishment wait times.

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Rotation-Age Results from a Loblolly Pine Spacing Trial
Rotation-Age Results from a Loblolly Pine Spacing Trial

Report provides cubic-foot volume yields for particular product definitions from a 25-year-old loblolly pine spacing trial and shows how closely, in the absence of thinning, total and merchantable wood production are linked to initial spacing. The results of this study suggest that no single planting density will be optimal for all management objectives. Ralph L. Amateis and Harold E. Burkhart.

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The Development of Pine Plantation Silviculture in the Southern United States
The Development of Pine Plantation Silviculture in the Southern United States

Article reviews the contributions of applied silvicultural research in tree improvement, nursery management, site preparation, weed control, and fertilization to plantation forestry in the South. Thomas R. Fox, Eric J. Jokela, and H. Lee Allen.

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