Pine plantations are important to Virginia’s economy and are, therefore, a high priority for scientific study. Applying research results to operational plantations has been the key to enhancing the productivity of our pine forests. We have more than doubled the productivity of Virginia’s pine plantations over the last 60 years.
What We Have Learned
The first step along the path to increased productivity was the recognition that artificial regeneration (i.e., planting seedlings) was essential. Studies helped us determine the best methods for handling, transporting, and planting seedlings to maximize their survival and early vigor.
The next limitation to be recognized was the fact that local seed sources outperform those from more distant locations. This led to the development of the tree improvement program and seed production orchards to most efficiently provide seed for our nurseries.
Studies comparing different practices for establishing and managing pine stands have given us greatly improved methods for controlling competing vegetation, managing soil nutrient resources through fertilization, and selecting and maintaining the best stand configuration through planting density and thinning regimes.
We continue our studies of pine forest subjects like: combinations of thinning and fertilizer for maintaining forest vigor and increasing productivity (in collaboration with the Virginia Tech and North Carolina State Forest Productivity Cooperative); effects of planting density and supplemental planting (interplanting) to maximize product yields; effects of various competition control methods and strategies; planting and genotype deployment patterns to address varying product objectives; performance of containerized seedlings, and a comparison of options for storing and shipping seedlings from the nurseries.
Learn more about forest inventory at the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station.
|Development of Loblolly Pine Interplanted One Year After Simulated First-Year Mortality; Jerre Creighton||RR-131|
Report discusses a study that was installed in the spring of 2007 at Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest to examine the effects of interplanting loblolly pine seedlings in plots with varying levels of simulated seedling mortality in a one-year-old plantation.
|Effects of Planting Date (Month) on Longleaf Pine Survival in Virginia||RR-134|
Report provides an update on the effects of planting date on longleaf pine survival in Virginia.
|Growth of Loblolly Pine Planted at Low Densities||RR-135||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 001 A Comparison of Tree Growth and Development Between a Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Plantation Growing on Nason Soil in Orange County, Virginia; by H. W. Bashore and R. L. Marler||OR-001||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 005 Results of Helicopter Spraying of 2,4,5-T to Control Unwanted Hardwoods in Charlotte County, Virginia; by R. L. Marler||OR-005||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 007 Aerial Spraying for Planting Site Preparation on the Buckingham State Forest; W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler||OR-007||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 009 Foliage Spraying to Control Hardwoods: Using a Trailer-Type Sprayer on the Buckingham State Forest; by W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler||OR-009||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 010 Comparative Growth and Yield of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine in a Mixed Plantation; W.F. Custard and R. L. Marler||OR-010||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 013 Fertilization of Planted Loblolly Pine Seedlings Fails to Increase Height Growth; by W. A. Hubble, Jr., T. A. Dierauf, W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler||OR-013||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 014 Plowing Versus Chemical Sod Control; by J. G. Swiand R. L. Marler||OR-014||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 015 Backpack Mist Blower Study; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-015||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 026 Dybar for Planting Site Preparation; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-026||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 030 Treating Individual Trees with Dybar; by T. A. Dierauf and R. B. Geddes||OR-030||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 049 Yield of Old Field Shortleaf Pine Plantations; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner||OR-049||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 053 Does Interplanting Increase Yield?; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner and H.L. Olinger||OR-053||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 060 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 1; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-060||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 061 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 2; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-061||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 065 Results at Age 23 of a Loblolly Pine Pre-Commercial Thinning Study; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-065||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 067 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 3; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-067||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 068 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 4; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-068||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 069 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 5; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-069||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 070 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 6; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-070||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 071 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Damaged by an Early Hail Storm; by T. A. Dierauf, R. S. Jenkins, and D. L. Hixson||OR-071||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 074 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 7; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-074||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 075 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 8; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-075||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 076 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 9; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-076||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 077 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 10; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-077||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 078 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 11; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-078||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 079 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 12; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-079||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 081 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Damaged by an Early Wind Storm; by L. J. Apgar||OR-081||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 083 Early Planting, Over-Winter Storage, and Late Planting of White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-083||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 084 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 13; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-084||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 085 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 14; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-085||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 086 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 15; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-086||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 087 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 16; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-087||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 088 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 17; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-088||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 089 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No.18; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-089||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 090 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 19; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-090||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 091 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 20; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-091||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 092 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 21; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-092||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 096 Diameter Growth Following an Understory Prescribed Burn; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-096||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 097 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 22; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-097||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 098 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 23; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-098||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 099 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 24; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-099||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 100 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 25; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-100||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 101 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 26; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-101||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 102 Loblolly Pine Release Response to Complete Elimination of Understory Vegetation; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-102||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 106 A Three-year Loblolly Pine Interplanting Study on Site-Prepared Forestland; by T. A. Dierauf||OR-106||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 113 Controlling Herbaceous Competition and Tip Moth – Effects A16 Years; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani||OR-113||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 117 Planting 1-0 White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. Chandler||OR-117||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 119 Ripping to Improve Loblolly Seedling Survival and Growth; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani||OR-119||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 123 White Pine Old-Field Plantation Yields Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani||OR-123||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 124 Wide-Spacing Plantings of Loblolly Pine – Age 15 Results; by J. A. Scrivani and W.F. Bowman||OR-124||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|No. 125 Effects of Storage, Handling and Tranportation on Eastern White Pine 1st-Year Survival and Height; by Jerre L. Creighton and Wayne F. Bowman||OR-125||Publication||View||research-resource-information resource-information|
|Seven-Year Evaluation of Biosolids as a Fertilizer in Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine||RR-127|
Biosolids are solid and liquid materials produced from the treatment of municipal sewage sludge, commonly applied as a fertilizer material on agricultural fields. Most forestland in Virginia becomes nitrogen-limited as the stand develops. Report summarizes the results of a seven-year-old study to examine the effects of biosolids applied as fertilizers to a mid-rotation loblolly pine plantation in Essex County, showing that pine trees benefit from the biosolids much as they would from traditional inorganic fertilizers.
|Site Prep vs Release for Woody Competition Control in Loblolly Pine: 10-Year Growth and Projected Financial Returns||RR-130|
A study of the effects on loblolly pine growth of seven herbicide competition control alternatives was installed at the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest between July 2005 and August 2007. After 10 years, analysis of variance indicates that hardwood competition control has had a significant (P<0.01) positive effect on pine growth (basal area and volume).
The choice of surfactant can be critical in determining the outcome of an herbicide application. Research report reviews important factors to consider, including solution chemistry, herbicides state, surfactant type and chemistry, and important considerations for glyphosate herbicides. It also includes a case study.
|Use of Systemic Fipronil and Imidacloprid to Control Regeneration Pests of Loblolly Pine; Chris Asaro and Jerre Creighton (published 2011 Entomological Society of America)|
Article written by Chris Asaro and Jerre Creighton with Virginia Department of Forestry for the Entomological Society of America regarding the use of systemic fipronil and imidacloprid to control regeneration pests of loblolly pine.