Pine Forest Research

Pine plantations are important to Virginia’s economy and are, therefore, a high priority for scientific study. Applying research results to operational plantations has been the key to enhancing the productivity of our pine forests. We have more than doubled the productivity of Virginia’s pine plantations over the last 60 years.

What We Have Learned

Planting

The first step along the path to increased productivity was the recognition that artificial regeneration (i.e., planting seedlings) was essential. Studies helped us determine the best methods for handling, transporting, and planting seedlings to maximize their survival and early vigor.

Genetics

The next limitation to be recognized was the fact that local seed sources outperform those from more distant locations. This led to the development of the tree improvement program and seed production orchards to most efficiently provide seed for our nurseries.

Silviculture

Studies comparing different practices for establishing and managing pine stands have given us greatly improved methods for controlling competing vegetation, managing soil nutrient resources through fertilization, and selecting and maintaining the best stand configuration through planting density and thinning regimes.

Ongoing Projects

We continue our studies of pine forest subjects like: combinations of thinning and fertilizer for maintaining forest vigor and increasing productivity (in collaboration with the Virginia Tech and North Carolina State Forest Productivity Cooperative); effects of planting density and supplemental planting (interplanting) to maximize product yields; effects of various competition control methods and strategies; planting and genotype deployment patterns to address varying product objectives; performance of containerized seedlings, and a comparison of options for storing and shipping seedlings from the nurseries.


Additional Resources

Learn more about forest inventory at the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station.

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A Review of the “Pull-Up” and “Leave-Down” Methods of Planting Loblolly Pine
A Review of the “Pull-Up” and “Leave-Down” Methods of Planting Loblolly PineVol. 51, Issue 1

Article provides a review of the research and science behind two approaches to planting loblolly pine seedlings – essentially a comparison of planting depth vs. root straightening priorities. Shallow planting regardless of taproot form can kill seedlings. A seedling that has a bent taproot but is planted deeply will have a higher probability of survival than a shallow planted seedling with a straight taproot. David B. South, Professor, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences and Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, AL.

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Forest Research Review 2006-08
Forest Research Review 2006-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: longleaf pine establishment methods, shortleaf pine establishment methods, American chestnut backcross breeding, white pine seedling handling and competition control methods, loblolly pine release tank mixes and surfactants, epicormic branching of white oak, and northern red oak planting.

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Forest Research Review 2007-03
Forest Research Review 2007-03

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: the loblolly pine tree improvement program, competition control for shortleaf pine establishment, competition control for white pine establishment, pruning methods for urban trees, white oak crop tree release, tree-of-heaven control methods, yellow-poplar thinning response, and northern red oak planting.

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Forest Research Review 2007-09
Forest Research Review 2007-09

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: financial value of improved loblolly pine seedlings, loblolly pine planting density, white pine seedling handling and planting study, pre-commercial thinning of loblolly pine, riparian buffer planting success, and tree-of-heaven control methods.

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Forest Research Review 2008-04
Forest Research Review 2008-04

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: row orientation in loblolly pine growth, fertilizer x planting density effects on loblolly pine growth, varietal vs. open-pollinated loblolly pine, North Carolina and South Carolina families of loblolly pine in VA, longleaf pine establishment methods, longleaf pine provenances, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, and southern red oak crop tree release and fertilization.

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Forest Research Review 2008-10
Forest Research Review 2008-10

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: loblolly pine seed orchard management strategies, advances in pine plantation silviculture, longleaf pine grafting methods, competition control for shortleaf pine establishment, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, tree-of-heaven control methods, and northern red oak planting.

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Forest Research Review 2009-04
Forest Research Review 2009-04

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: potential for continued loblolly pine tree improvement, effects of thinning and fertilization in loblolly pine, American chestnut breeding program, longleaf pine provenance study, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, and southern red oak crop tree release and fertilization.

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Forest Research Review 2010-03
Forest Research Review 2010-03

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: loblolly pine site index, stem sinuosity in loblolly pine, longleaf pine establishment methods, American chestnut, effects of competing hardwoods on loblolly pine, white pine competition control and storage time, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, white oak crop tree release and fertilization.

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Forest Research Review 2010-10
Forest Research Review 2010-10

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: Forest Modeling Research Cooperative, potential for pine plantation woody biomass, stem forking in loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, loblolly pine growth after age two hardwood control, site preparation vs. release for loblolly pine growth, initial seedling size and establishment methods for northern red oak.

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Forest Research Review 2011-05
Forest Research Review 2011-05

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: thinning and fertilization in mid-rotation loblolly pine, loblolly pine planting spacing, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, timing of hardwood control in loblolly pine, longleaf pine provenance comparison, and white oak crop tree release.

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Forest Research Review 2012-08
Forest Research Review 2012-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: effects of pruning in loblolly pine, effects of planting density and fertilizer on loblolly pine growth, varietal vs open-pollinated loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, shortleaf pine provenance test, interplanting loblolly pine, tree shelter comparison for red oak in riparian buffers, crop tree release and fertilization of white oak and southern red oak.

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Forest Research Review 2013-08
Forest Research Review 2013-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: fourth cycle loblolly pine tree breeding, spacing impacts on loblolly lumber quality, fertilizer fate and carbon sequestration in loblolly pine, logging slash for skid trail stabilization, longleaf pine provenances, growth and value of low-density loblolly pine plantations, projected value of interplanted loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, growth and value of loblolly pine after site prep vs. release, hardwood plantations in central VA, tree shelters for northern red oak

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Nine-Year Growth Responses to Planting Density Manipulation and Repeated Early Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine Stand in the Virginia Piedmont
Nine-Year Growth Responses to Planting Density Manipulation and Repeated Early Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine Stand in the Virginia Piedmont

Report provides results of a study of two planting densities (363 and 726 trees per acre) and three levels of nutrient additions aimed at maintaining the current site index (SI25) of the stand (55 ft.) or improving the SI25 to 70 and 80 ft. None of the treatments affected survival or height during the first 9 years, but both affected diameter growth. Colleen A. Carlson, Thomas R. Fox, Jerre Creighton, Phillip M. Dougherty, and John R. Johnson

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No. 001 A Comparison of Tree Growth and Development Between a Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Plantation Growing on Nason Soil in Orange County, Virginia; by H. W. Bashore and R. L. Marler
No. 001 A Comparison of Tree Growth and Development Between a Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Plantation Growing on Nason Soil in Orange County, Virginia; by H. W. Bashore and R. L. MarlerOR-001

Report summarizes field data gathered in Orange County, VA in shortleaf and loblolly pine plantations.

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No. 005 Results of Helicopter Spraying of 2,4,5-T to Control Unwanted Hardwoods in Charlotte County, Virginia; by R. L. Marler
No. 005 Results of Helicopter Spraying of 2,4,5-T to Control Unwanted Hardwoods in Charlotte County, Virginia; by R. L. MarlerOR-005

Report provides results of a helicopter-applied herbicide treatment for controlling unwanted hardwoods in Charlotte County, VA.

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No. 006 Virginia's 1958 Pine Seed Tree Reproduction Survey
No. 006 Virginia’s 1958 Pine Seed Tree Reproduction SurveyOR-006

Report provides information regarding the relative effectiveness of the Pine Seed Tree Act in 12 Virginia counties between 1950 and 1955.

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No. 007 Aerial Spraying for Planting Site Preparation on the Buckingham State Forest; W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 007 Aerial Spraying for Planting Site Preparation on the Buckingham State Forest; W. F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-007

Report provides the results of a 1959 aerial herbicide application for site preparation of a 40-acre cutover hardwood stand on Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest.

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No. 008 Virginia Landowners Try Direct Seedling Loblolly Pine; by R. L. Marler
No. 008 Virginia Landowners Try Direct Seedling Loblolly Pine; by R. L. MarlerOR-008

Report provides first growing season results from loblolly pine direct seeded pilot areas in 15 counties.

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No. 009 Foliage Spraying to Control Hardwoods: Using a Trailer-Type Sprayer on the Buckingham State Forest; by W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 009 Foliage Spraying to Control Hardwoods: Using a Trailer-Type Sprayer on the Buckingham State Forest; by W. F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-009

Report provides the results of foliage spray tests to control hardwoods on the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest in 1959 and 1960.

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No. 010 Comparative Growth and Yield of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine in a Mixed Plantation; W.F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 010 Comparative Growth and Yield of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine in a Mixed Plantation; W.F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-010

Report provides growth data from a 1937 Buckingham County plantation containing both loblolly and shortleaf pine that was thinned at age 19 and again at age 24, providing evidence of the more rapid growth of loblolly pine.

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No. 011 Some Virginia Direct Seeding Results for 1961
No. 011 Some Virginia Direct Seeding Results for 1961OR-011

Report provides first growing season results from white and loblolly pine direct seeded pilot areas in 1961.

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No. 012 Direct Seeding Can Provide a Low Cost Method of Establishing Pine; by W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 012 Direct Seeding Can Provide a Low Cost Method of Establishing Pine; by W. F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-012

Report provides the results of the successful conversion of a low-grade hardwood stand to loblolly pine by direct seeding on seven acres at the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest.

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No. 013 Fertilization of Planted Loblolly Pine Seedlings Fails to Increase Height Growth; by W. A. Hubble, Jr., T. A. Dierauf, W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 013 Fertilization of Planted Loblolly Pine Seedlings Fails to Increase Height Growth; by W. A. Hubble, Jr., T. A. Dierauf, W. F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-013

Report provides height growth comparisons from four trials where fertilizer was applied to newly-planted loblolly pine seedlings.

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No. 014 Plowing Versus Chemical Sod Control; by J. G. Swiand R. L. Marler
No. 014 Plowing Versus Chemical Sod Control; by J. G. Swiand R. L. MarlerOR-014

Report provides age three results from a study of chemical and mechanical control methods of sod control in an old-field loblolly pine planting.

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No. 015 Backpack Mist Blower Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 015 Backpack Mist Blower Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-015

Report provides first-year results from 32 plots testing backpack mist blower applications of herbicides for hardwood competition control in pine stands of the Piedmont and coastal plain.

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No. 016 Covering Pine Seeds Produces More Seedlings; by E. H. Robertson and R. L. Marler
No. 016 Covering Pine Seeds Produces More Seedlings; by E. H. Robertson and R. L. MarlerOR-016

Report provides first-year results from spot-seeded plots comparing uncovered and lightly-covered (with soil) treatments for establishing loblolly and shortleaf pine.

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No. 017 Results of 1962 Broadcast Seedlings on Private Lands in Virginia; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 017 Results of 1962 Broadcast Seedlings on Private Lands in Virginia; by T. A. DieraufOR-017

Report provides one-year results from 34 plots direct-seeded with loblolly, Virginia and white pine.

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No. 018 Pine Spot Seeding, 1962 Results; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 018 Pine Spot Seeding, 1962 Results; by T. A. DieraufOR-018

Report provides first-year results of a study to test spot seeding as a method of establishing loblolly, Virginia and shortleaf pine on cutover land.

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No. 019 Tree Planting Survival: A 3-Year Study; by R. L. Marler
No. 019 Tree Planting Survival: A 3-Year Study; by R. L. MarlerOR-019

Report summarizes a three-year study of planting survival of loblolly, shortleaf and white pine, including more than 3,300 different plantings.

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No. 020 Tractor-Mounted Mist Blower Study; William Mc. Newman; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 020 Tractor-Mounted Mist Blower Study; William Mc. Newman; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-020

Report summarizes 1961 and 1962 tests of the use and effectiveness of a tractor-mounted mist blower to control hardwoods using different herbicides and rates at Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest.

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No. 023 Height Comparisons of Direct Seeded and Planted Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 023 Height Comparisons of Direct Seeded and Planted Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. DieraufOR-023

Report compares height growth of loblolly pine established by direct seeding and planting after three and five growing seasons.

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No. 024 White Pine Spot Seeding Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 024 White Pine Spot Seeding Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-024

Report provides three-year results of study plots testing spot seeding as a method of establishing white pine on cutover land in the mountains.

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No. 025 Direct Seeding Loblolly Pine in Piedmont VA; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. Marler
No. 025 Direct Seeding Loblolly Pine in Piedmont VA; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. MarlerOR-025

Report summarizes results from a series of loblolly pine direct seeding studies established between 1961 and 1964 at Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest.

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No. 026 Dybar for Planting Site Preparation; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 026 Dybar for Planting Site Preparation; by T. A. DieraufOR-026

Report provides hardwood control results from a series of plots established in 1964 and 1965 testing the herbicide Dybnar at a range of rates.

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No. 030 Treating Individual Trees with Dybar; by T. A. Dierauf and R. B. Geddes
No. 030 Treating Individual Trees with Dybar; by T. A. Dierauf and R. B. GeddesOR-030

Report provides results of a 1965 study of Dybar using different rates and application methods for control of residual hardwoods on a bulldozed site.

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No. 033 Damage from Mist Blowing to Recently Planted and Germinated Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf, W. M. Newman, and S. F. Warner
No. 033 Damage from Mist Blowing to Recently Planted and Germinated Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf, W. M. Newman, and S. F. WarnerOR-033

Report provides data from a study of damage from mist-blowing herbicides on planted or direct seeded loblolly pine after five growing seasons.

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No. 034 Exposure, Clay Treatment and Storage of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 034 Exposure, Clay Treatment and Storage of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-034

Report provides three-year results from a study of the effects of exposure, clay dipping and storage time on survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings.

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No. 037 Direct Seeding and Planting Virginia and Loblolly Pine on Sites Prepared by Burning; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner, and R. L. Marler
No. 037 Direct Seeding and Planting Virginia and Loblolly Pine on Sites Prepared by Burning; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner, and R. L. MarlerOR-037

Report provides results of a test of direct seeding of Virginia pine compared to planting of both Virginia and loblolly pines.

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No. 038 A Three-year Loblolly Pie Direct Seeding Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 038 A Three-year Loblolly Pie Direct Seeding Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-038

Report summarizes stocking and height data from a study of direct seeding loblolly pine on coastal plain soil in Chesterfield County, VA.

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No. 039 Loblolly Pine Planting Date Study; by J. W. Garner
No. 039 Loblolly Pine Planting Date Study; by J. W. GarnerOR-039

Report compares three-year survival and height for loblolly pine seedlings planted monthly from December through June, 1969.

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No. 041 Rough Land Tree Planter Study; by J. W. Garner and T. A. Dierauf
No. 041 Rough Land Tree Planter Study; by J. W. Garner and T. A. DieraufOR-041

Report summarizes two-year survival and height growth of loblolly pine on hand- and machine-planted plots.

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No. 042 A Comparison of Planting, Spot Seeding and Broadcast Seeding of Loblolly Pine; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 042 A Comparison of Planting, Spot Seeding and Broadcast Seeding of Loblolly Pine; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-042

Report provides results of a five-year trial of planting, spot seeding and broadcast seeding on 10 different tracts.

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No. 043 Effect of Time in Cold Storage on Loblolly Pine Seedling Survival; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 043 Effect of Time in Cold Storage on Loblolly Pine Seedling Survival; by T. A. DieraufOR-043

Report provides survival and height growth of dormant and non-dormant loblolly pine seedlings after cold storage ranging from zero to three months through age three.

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No. 044 Effect of Freezing on Survival of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by J. W. Garner and T. A. Dierauf
No. 044 Effect of Freezing on Survival of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by J. W. Garner and T. A. DieraufOR-044

Report provides results of a two-year survival of loblolly pine seedlings exposed for two and three days to temperatures of 12 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit prior to planting.

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No. 045 Kraft Bags Versus Conventional Packaging: Effects on Survival; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 045 Kraft Bags Versus Conventional Packaging: Effects on Survival; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-045

Report provides results of two studies installed in 1970 with the purposes of 1) comparing survival of loblolly pine seedlings packed in kraft paper bags with seedlings packed in conventional packages, and 2) assessing the effects of varied periods of exposure to the sun prior to planting.

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No. 047 A Test of Agricol as a Root Dip; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 047 A Test of Agricol as a Root Dip; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-047

Report provides three-year results from a study comparing loblolly pine seedlings root-dipped in water, kaolin clay suspension, and Agricol, and exposed to the sun and air for 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes prior to planting.

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No. 048 Height Growth of Planted and Direct Seeded Loblolly Pine; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 048 Height Growth of Planted and Direct Seeded Loblolly Pine; by T. A. DieraufOR-048

Report provides eight-year height growth of planted and direct seeded loblolly pines on piedmont and coastal plain sites.

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No. 049 Yield of Old Field Shortleaf Pine Plantations; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 049 Yield of Old Field Shortleaf Pine Plantations; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-049

Report summarizes yield data from 57 shortleaf pine stands in 40 different plantations in 25 different piedmont and mountain counties.

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No. 050 Changes in Loblolly Pine Seedling Dry Weight and Top to Root Ratio Between October and March; by J. W. Garner and T. A. Dierauf
No. 050 Changes in Loblolly Pine Seedling Dry Weight and Top to Root Ratio Between October and March; by J. W. Garner and T. A. DieraufOR-050

Report provides an analysis of dry weights and root:shoot ratios of loblolly pine seedlings lifted from nursery beds at monthly intervals between October 1, 1973 and March 1, 1974.

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No. 052 Root Pruning Loblolly Pine Seedlings, Effect on Survival and Growth; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 052 Root Pruning Loblolly Pine Seedlings, Effect on Survival and Growth; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-052

Report provides results from a three-year study where moderate and severe root pruning just before planting was compared to no root pruning on two size classes of seedlings (smaller and larger than average).

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No. 053 Does Interplanting Increase Yield?; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner and H.L. Olinger
No. 053 Does Interplanting Increase Yield?; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner and H.L. OlingerOR-053

Report summarizes 15-year growth of loblolly pines in a study of interplanting in old field plantations one, two, and three years after initial planting.

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No. 055 Results of Root Wrenching in a Sandy Nursery Soil; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 055 Results of Root Wrenching in a Sandy Nursery Soil; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-055

Report provides information on three-year performance of loblolly pine seedlings subjected to mechanical root wrenching in the seedbeds (simulated by hand-pulling) and top clipping.

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No. 056 Loblolly Seed Bed Density Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 056 Loblolly Seed Bed Density Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-056

Report provides information on growth and survival for three years after planting of loblolly pine grown at 24, 36, and 52 seedlings per square foot in the nursery bed.

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No. 058 A Study of Undercutting, Lateral Root Pruning, Top Clipping in Loblolly Pine Nursery Beds; by T. A. Dierauf and H. L. Olinger
No. 058 A Study of Undercutting, Lateral Root Pruning, Top Clipping in Loblolly Pine Nursery Beds; by T. A. Dierauf and H. L. OlingerOR-058

Report summarizes growth and survival data for three years after planting of seedlings that were undercut, laterally root-pruned, and top-clipped in the nursery beds.

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No. 060 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 1; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 060 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 1; by T. A. DieraufOR-060

Report summarizes findings from three paired plots released from hardwood competition by hand chopping at age nine and measured through age 23. The basal area and volume response to release varied widely, but, on average, released plots had 18% more basal area and 15% more volume than check plots.

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No. 061 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 2; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 061 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 2; by T. A. DieraufOR-061

Report summarizes findings from eight plots released from hardwood competition by hand chopping at age five and measured through age 18. Released plots averaged 16% more basal area and 27% more volume than check plots.

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No. 065 Results at Age 23 of a Loblolly Pine Pre-Commercial Thinning Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 065 Results at Age 23 of a Loblolly Pine Pre-Commercial Thinning Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-065

Report describes effects of pre-commercial thinning in a four-year-old direct-seeded loblolly pine stand on long-term growth and yield. Treatments increased diameter growth and pulpwood yields through age 23.

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No. 067 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 3; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 067 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 3; by T. A. DieraufOR-067

Report summarizes findings from two areas released from hardwood competition by either hand chopping or mist-blowing herbicides at age two compared to no treatment and measured through age 19. Hand-chopped plots averaged 63% more basal area and 80% more volume than the check plots, and mist-blown plots averaged 29% more basal area and 25% more volume than check plots.

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No. 068 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 4; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 068 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 4; by T. A. DieraufOR-068

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by mist-blowing herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 19. Mist-blown plots averaged 25% more basal area and 28% more volume than check plots.

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No. 069 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 5; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 069 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 5; by T. A. DieraufOR-069

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by mist-blowing herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 21. Mist-blown plots averaged 78% more basal area and 91% more volume than check plots.

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No. 070 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 6; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 070 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 6; by T. A. DieraufOR-070

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by either hand chopping or mist-blowing herbicides at age five to no treatment and measured through age 22. Hand-chopped plots averaged 52% more basal area and 63% more volume than the check plots, and mist-blown plots averaged 19% more basal area and 17% more volume than check plots.

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No. 074 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 7; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 074 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 7; by T. A. DieraufOR-074

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by mist-blowing herbicides at age two to no treatment and measured through age 16. Mist-blown plots averaged 30% more basal area and 43% more volume than check plots.

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No. 075 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 8; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 075 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 8; by T. A. DieraufOR-075

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by mist-blowing herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 21. Mist-blown plots averaged 88% more basal area and 98% more volume than check plots.

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No. 076 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 9; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 076 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 9; by T. A. DieraufOR-076

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by hand chopping at age five to no treatment and measured through age 21. Hand-chopped plots averaged 109% more basal area and 153% more volume than check plots.

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No. 077 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 10; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 077 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 10; by T. A. DieraufOR-077

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by hand chopping at age four to no treatment and measured through age 22. Hand-chopped plots averaged 7% more basal area and 5% more volume than check plots.

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No. 078 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 11; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 078 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 11; by T. A. DieraufOR-078

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 17. Herbicide plots averaged 18% more basal area and 23% more volume than check plots. This report also introduced the pine free-to-grow classification system that has been used ever since in hardwood control studies across the South.

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No. 079 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 12; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 079 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 12; by T. A. DieraufOR-079

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age six to no treatment and measured through age 18. Herbicide plots averaged 41% more basal area and 39% more volume than check plots.

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No. 083 Early Planting, Over-Winter Storage, and Late Planting of White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 083 Early Planting, Over-Winter Storage, and Late Planting of White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. DieraufOR-083

Report summarizes results from a study installed from 1981-1984 to evaluate early lifting/planting, over-winter storage, and late lifting/planting of white pine. The most significant effect on survival came from storage; seedlings lifted and planted in the fall or in the spring survived equally. Height growth of surviving seedlings was not affected by lifting/planting schedule.

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No. 084 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 13; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 084 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 13; by T. A. DieraufOR-084

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 17. Herbicide plots averaged 68-70% more basal area and 91-99% more volume than check plots.

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No. 085 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 14; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 085 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 14; by T. A. DieraufOR-085

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 16. Herbicide plots averaged 22% more basal area and 35% more volume than check plots.

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No. 086 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 15; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 086 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 15; by T. A. DieraufOR-086

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age four to no treatment and measured through age 19. Herbicide plots averaged 31% more basal area and 53% more volume than check plots.

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No. 087 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 16; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 087 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 16; by T. A. DieraufOR-087

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 15. Herbicide plots averaged slightly less basal area and only 0.4 cords per acre more volume than check plots.

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No. 088 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 17; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 088 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 17; by T. A. DieraufOR-088

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 18. Herbicide plots averaged 10-16% more basal area and 13-23% more volume than check plots.

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No. 089 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No.18; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 089 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No.18; by T. A. DieraufOR-089

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 16. Herbicide plots averaged 29% more basal area and 48% more volume than check plots.

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No. 090 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 19; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 090 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 19; by T. A. DieraufOR-090

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age two to no treatment and measured through age 18. Herbicide plots averaged 54-76% more basal area and 67-103% more volume than check plots.

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No. 091 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 20; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 091 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 20; by T. A. DieraufOR-091

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 17. Herbicide plots averaged 17-32% more basal area and 28-65% more volume than check plots.

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No. 092 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 21; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 092 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 21; by T. A. DieraufOR-092

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 17. Herbicide plots averaged 28-29% more basal area and 48-66% more volume than check plots.

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No. 096 Diameter Growth Following an Understory Prescribed Burn; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 096 Diameter Growth Following an Understory Prescribed Burn; by T. A. DieraufOR-096

Report describes effects of crown scorch following a 1984 burn in loblolly pine. After four years, more than half the trees with 100% crown scorch had died but early differences in diameter growth had disappeared.

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No. 097 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 22; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 097 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 22; by T. A. DieraufOR-097

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by 1) hand chopping, 2) basal spraying herbicides, or 3) mist blowing herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 20. Herbicide plots averaged 6-12% more basal area and 9-13% more volume than check plots.

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No. 098 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 23; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 098 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 23; by T. A. DieraufOR-098

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by basal spraying herbicides at two dilution rates at age one to no treatment and measured through age 19. Cordwood yield response varied from +22% on the lower dilution rate to -17% with the higher dilution.

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No. 099 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 24; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 099 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 24; by T. A. DieraufOR-099

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 20. Herbicide plots averaged 11% more basal area and 18% more volume than check plots.

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No. 100 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 25; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 100 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 25; by T. A. DieraufOR-100

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age two to no treatment and measured through age 18. Herbicide plots averaged 169% more basal area and 215% more volume than check plots.

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No. 101 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 26; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 101 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 26; by T. A. DieraufOR-101

Report summarizes findings from plots comparing release from hardwood competition by aerial application of herbicides at age three to no treatment and measured through age 19. Herbicide plots averaged 22% more basal area and 38% more volume than check plots.

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No. 102 Loblolly Pine Release Response to Complete Elimination of Understory Vegetation; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 102 Loblolly Pine Release Response to Complete Elimination of Understory Vegetation; by T. A. DieraufOR-102

Report provides information regarding loblolly pine growth through age 18 on plots released from understory (blueberry and huckleberry) vegetation at age 10. Complete elimination of understory competition had no significant impact on diameter or basal area growth.

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No. 106 A Three-year Loblolly Pine Interplanting Study on Site-Prepared Forestland; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 106 A Three-year Loblolly Pine Interplanting Study on Site-Prepared Forestland; by T. A. DieraufOR-106

Report provides 20-year results of a study comparing planting 824 trees per acre, 412 trees per acre, and 412 trees per acre followed by interplanting another 412 trees the following year. Interplanting had a negative effect on stand productivity, reducing average stem diameter and increasing the number of sub-merchantable trees.

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No. 113 Controlling Herbaceous Competition and Tip Moth - Effects After 16 Years; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani
No. 113 Controlling Herbaceous Competition and Tip Moth – Effects After 16 Years; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. ScrivaniOR-113

Report describes the effects of four treatments – herbaceous vegetation control, tip moth control, herbaceous vegetation and tip moth control combined, and no treatment – on loblolly pine growth through age 16. Herbaceous control increased height by 2 feet, diameter by 0.5 inches, and basal area by 25 square feet. Tip moth control had only slight effects on those attributes.

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No. 117 Planting 1-0 White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. Chandler
No. 117 Planting 1-0 White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. ChandlerOR-117

Report summarizes three-year results from a test of 1-0 white pine seedlings from 2/32 to 5/32 inches in root collar diameter compared to 2-0 seedlings. Smaller seedlings survived as well as larger ones, but grew less in height; 2-0 seedlings grew more in height than 1-0.

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No. 119 Ripping to Improve Loblolly Seedling Survival and Growth; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani
No. 119 Ripping to Improve Loblolly Seedling Survival and Growth; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. ScrivaniOR-119

Report provides information about a study where loblolly pine seedlings were planted in rows that had either been ripped to a depth of 16 inches or not ripped on eight different tracts. At age six, neither survival nor height were significantly affected by treatment, but the gain in diameter of 0.13 inches was statistically significant.

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No. 123 White Pine Old-Field Plantation Yields Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani
No. 123 White Pine Old-Field Plantation Yields Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. ScrivaniOR-123

Report summarizes yield data from 59 plots installed in 48 different white pine plantations over a 30-year period that was used to construct volume tables and site index curves and project board-foot volumes.

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No. 124 Wide-Spacing Plantings of Loblolly Pine - Age 15 Results; by J. A. Scrivani and W.F. Bowman
No. 124 Wide-Spacing Plantings of Loblolly Pine – Age 15 Results; by J. A. Scrivani and W.F. BowmanOR-124

Report provides 15-year growth information on three locations of plots in the piedmont of Virginia planted with 200, 300, and 400 loblolly pines per acre. This study demonstrated that relatively low-density plantings of loblolly pine can result in well-stocked stands capable of supporting a merchantable thinning by age 15.

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No. 125 Effects of Storage, Handling and Tranportation on Eastern White Pine 1st-Year Survival and Height; by Jerre L. Creighton and Wayne F. Bowman
No. 125 Effects of Storage, Handling and Tranportation on Eastern White Pine 1st-Year Survival and Height; by Jerre L. Creighton and Wayne F. BowmanOR-125

Report summarizes past studies and results from a new test of varied storage times, exposure during grading and planting, and transport. Survival ranged from 46% to 91% and was reduced by cold storage over four weeks when combined with prolonged exposure during planting and exposure during transportation.

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No. 127 Seven-Year Evaluation of Biosolids as a Fertilizer in Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine
No. 127 Seven-Year Evaluation of Biosolids as a Fertilizer in Mid-Rotation Loblolly PineRR-127

Biosolids are solid and liquid materials produced from the treatment of municipal sewage sludge, commonly applied as a fertilizer material on agricultural fields. Most forestland in Virginia becomes nitrogen-limited as the stand develops. Report summarizes the results of a seven-year-old study to examine the effects of biosolids applied as fertilizers to a mid-rotation loblolly pine plantation in Essex County, showing that pine trees benefit from the biosolids much as they would from traditional inorganic fertilizers.

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No. 129 Surfactant Chemistry
No. 129 Surfactant ChemistryRR-129

The choice of surfactant can be critical in determining the outcome of an herbicide application. Research report reviews important factors to consider, including solution chemistry, herbicides state, surfactant type and chemistry, and important considerations for glyphosate herbicides. It also includes a case study.

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No. 130 Site Prep vs. Release for Woody Competition Control in Loblolly Pine: 10-Year Growth and Projected Financial Returns
No. 130 Site Prep vs. Release for Woody Competition Control in Loblolly Pine: 10-Year Growth and Projected Financial ReturnsRR-130

A study of the effects on loblolly pine growth of seven herbicide competition control alternatives was installed at the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest between July 2005 and August 2007. After 10 years, analysis of variance indicates that hardwood competition control has had a significant (P<0.01) positive effect on pine growth (basal area and volume).

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No. 131 Development of Loblolly Pine Interplanted One Year After Simulated First-Year Mortality
No. 131 Development of Loblolly Pine Interplanted One Year After Simulated First-Year MortalityRR-131

Report discusses a study that was installed in the spring of 2007 at Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest to examine the effects of interplanting loblolly pine seedlings in plots with varying levels of simulated seedling mortality in a one-year-old plantation.

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No. 134 Effects of Planting Date (Month) on Longleaf Pine Survival in Virginia
No. 134 Effects of Planting Date (Month) on Longleaf Pine Survival in VirginiaRR-134

Report provides an update on the effects of planting date on longleaf pine survival in Virginia.

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No. 135 Growth of Loblolly Pine Planted at Low Densities
No. 135 Growth of Loblolly Pine Planted at Low DensitiesRR-135

Report provides age 22 data from a study installed on the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest between 1990 and 1993 to compare the tree growth and stand-level productivity of plots planted with 200, 300 and 400 seedlings per acre (spa).

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No. 142 Five-Year Effects of Herbicide Tank Mixes and Surfactants for Loblolly Pine Release
No. 142 Five-Year Effects of Herbicide Tank Mixes and Surfactants for Loblolly Pine ReleaseRR-142

Report provides results from a study of the effects of five surfactants when applied with three common herbicide mixes for loblolly pine release. Pine damage was associated with the Arsenal (imazapyr) x Accord (glyphosate) tank mix – either with or without surfactants – and was temporary. Five-year pine growth was significantly better with release despite the damage.

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No. 143 Site Prep vs. Release for Woody Competition Control in Loblolly Pine: 15-Year Results
No. 143 Site Prep vs. Release for Woody Competition Control in Loblolly Pine: 15-Year ResultsRR-143

Report provides age 15 results from a study of the effects on loblolly pine growth of seven herbicide alternatives for hardwood competition control (all with and without an additional year one herbaceous weed control treatment). After 15 years, pine productivity increased by 70% with the best site prep treatment compared to 40% with a second-year release.

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No. 144 Effects of Hardwood Control Timing on Loblolly Pine Growth - Age Five Results
No. 144 Effects of Hardwood Control Timing on Loblolly Pine Growth – Age Five ResultsRR-144

Report provides results from a study of the effects on loblolly pine growth of five hardwood competition control strategies (pre-plant site prep, year-one release, year-two release, one-year layout followed by pre-plant site prep, and no control). After five years, all treatments had effectively controlled hardwood competition and differences in pine growth were directly related to the timing of hardwood control.

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Rotation-Age Results from a Loblolly Pine Spacing Trial
Rotation-Age Results from a Loblolly Pine Spacing Trial

Report provides cubic-foot volume yields for particular product definitions from a 25-year-old loblolly pine spacing trial and shows how closely, in the absence of thinning, total and merchantable wood production are linked to initial spacing. The results of this study suggest that no single planting density will be optimal for all management objectives. Ralph L. Amateis and Harold E. Burkhart.

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The Development of Pine Plantation Silviculture in the Southern United States
The Development of Pine Plantation Silviculture in the Southern United States

Article reviews the contributions of applied silvicultural research in tree improvement, nursery management, site preparation, weed control, and fertilization to plantation forestry in the South. Thomas R. Fox, Eric J. Jokela, and H. Lee Allen.

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Use of Systemic Fipronil and Imidacloprid to Control Regeneration Pests of Loblolly Pine; Chris Asaro and Jerre Creighton (published 2011 Entomological Society of America)
Use of Systemic Fipronil and Imidacloprid to Control Regeneration Pests of Loblolly Pine; Chris Asaro and Jerre Creighton (published 2011 Entomological Society of America)

Article written by Chris Asaro and Jerre Creighton with Virginia Department of Forestry for the Entomological Society of America regarding the use of systemic fipronil and imidacloprid to control regeneration pests of loblolly pine.

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