Forest Research

Since 1955, the VDOF has supported a research program to develop answers to forestry questions for Virginia landowners.

What Is Forest Research and Why Is It Important?

There is an important distinction between research and casual observation. The studies conducted by our research program follow accepted scientific methods of design and analysis to make sure our results are meaningful and repeatable – not just chance occurrences that could vary from place to place or year to year. Each is planned with a specific question – or hypothesis – in mind.

Field work is the critical component of the process; we carefully map, track, and monitor nearly 55,000 trees in almost 1,000 plots at 100 sites distributed across the forests and regions of the Commonwealth every year. Many are monitored for decades to better track the long-term sustainability and productivity of our forests and how they respond to different treatments or conditions. The results are summarized and delivered in written reports and at workshops and training classes every year.

Our decades of research have been instrumental in developing the practices currently used in the pine and hardwood forests of Virginia. Thanks to what we’ve learned, the productivity of our pine forests has more than doubled and options for improving the species composition and health of our hardwood forests have been identified and proven.

History

Beginning in an age long before modern electronics, our early research subjects involved what today would seem relatively simple and small-scale issues. The first research report issued by the Virginia Department of Forestry – in September 1955 – was a comparison of shortleaf and longleaf pine growth measured on a common central Virginia soil. Working with manual field tools, pencil, and paper, most of the early research consisted of basic counts, measurements, and summaries.

Over the decades, powerful computers, laser range finders, global positioning technology, aerial imagery, and sophisticated laboratory techniques have become widely available. Our recent studies use unmanned aircraft images and DNA mapping, and address subjects such as impacts of climate change and genetics of blight-resistant hybrid American chestnuts. We can complete sophisticated analyses in minutes using computer software that would not have been imagined in the mid-1900s.

Collaboration

Through the years, the VDOF research effort has remained modest in staffing and budget. In recent decades, we have been able to leverage our efforts by collaborating with universities, agencies, and industries with shared interests. The VDOF is a member of the Forest Modeling Research Cooperative based at Virginia Tech, the Forest Productivity Research Cooperative based at North Carolina State University and Virginia Tech, and the Cooperative Tree Improvement Program directed from North Carolina State University. We also work cooperatively with the American Chestnut Foundation, Longleaf Alliance, Shortleaf Initiative, and other groups where we share a common interest. These collaborations give us access to research, analytical resources, and study data many times greater than we could achieve working alone.

Focus Areas

The research program is structured to address five core focus areas:


Additional Resources

Learn more about forest inventory at the USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station.

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A Review of the “Pull-Up” and “Leave-Down” Methods of Planting Loblolly Pine
A Review of the “Pull-Up” and “Leave-Down” Methods of Planting Loblolly PineVol. 51, Issue 1

Article provides a review of the research and science behind two approaches to planting loblolly pine seedlings – essentially a comparison of planting depth vs. root straightening priorities. Shallow planting regardless of taproot form can kill seedlings. A seedling that has a bent taproot but is planted deeply will have a higher probability of survival than a shallow planted seedling with a straight taproot. David B. South, Professor, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences and Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station, Auburn University, AL.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
America's Longleaf Restoration Initiative 2020 Range-Wide Accomplishment
America’s Longleaf Restoration Initiative 2020 Range-Wide Accomplishment

VDOF is part of the Longleaf Cooperators of Virginia working together to conserve and restore longleaf pine in its native range of southeast United States. Report summarizes the 2020 range-wide accomplishments of America’s Longleaf Restoration Initiative.

Viewforest-management research-resource-information resource-informationdiminished-species longleaf-pine lpr-programpublication
An Assessment of Potential of Hybrid Poplar for Planting in the Virginia Piedmont
An Assessment of Potential of Hybrid Poplar for Planting in the Virginia Piedmont

Report provides four-year results from a study of 12 hybrid poplar clones planted in replicated yield trials at two locations in the Virginia Piedmont. Results through the first four growing seasons showed that the clone with the most rapid height growth was also most susceptible to frost damage and stem canker disease. Harold E. Burkhart, Amy M. Brunner, Brian J. Stanton, Richard A. Shuren, Ralph L. Amateis, Jerre L. Creighton.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationgenetics hardwood-silviculture research-studies tree-improvementpublication
Forest Research Review 2006-08
Forest Research Review 2006-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: longleaf pine establishment methods, shortleaf pine establishment methods, American chestnut backcross breeding, white pine seedling handling and competition control methods, loblolly pine release tank mixes and surfactants, epicormic branching of white oak, and northern red oak planting.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationchestnut competition-control diminished-species genetics hardwood-silviculture loblolly-pine longleaf-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices shortleaf-pine white-pinepublication
Forest Research Review 2007-03
Forest Research Review 2007-03

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: the loblolly pine tree improvement program, competition control for shortleaf pine establishment, competition control for white pine establishment, pruning methods for urban trees, white oak crop tree release, tree-of-heaven control methods, yellow-poplar thinning response, and northern red oak planting.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control diminished-species genetics growth-and-yield hardwood-silviculture intermediate-stand-treatments invasive-species loblolly-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices shortleaf-pine tree-improvement tree-of-heaven urban-forestry white-pine yellow-poplarpublication
Forest Research Review 2007-09
Forest Research Review 2007-09

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: financial value of improved loblolly pine seedlings, loblolly pine planting density, white pine seedling handling and planting study, pre-commercial thinning of loblolly pine, riparian buffer planting success, and tree-of-heaven control methods.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control forest-economics genetics hardwood-silviculture intermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices riparian-forest-buffers tree-improvement tree-of-heaven white-pinepublication
Forest Research Review 2008-04
Forest Research Review 2008-04

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: row orientation in loblolly pine growth, fertilizer x planting density effects on loblolly pine growth, varietal vs. open-pollinated loblolly pine, North Carolina and South Carolina families of loblolly pine in VA, longleaf pine establishment methods, longleaf pine provenances, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, and southern red oak crop tree release and fertilization.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control diminished-species fertilizers genetics growth-and-yield hardwood-silviculture intermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine longleaf-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices tree-improvementpublication
Forest Research Review 2008-10
Forest Research Review 2008-10

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: loblolly pine seed orchard management strategies, advances in pine plantation silviculture, longleaf pine grafting methods, competition control for shortleaf pine establishment, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, tree-of-heaven control methods, and northern red oak planting.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control diminished-species genetics growth-and-yield hardwood-silviculture insects invasive-species loblolly-pine longleaf-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices shortleaf-pine tree-improvement tree-of-heavenpublication
Forest Research Review 2009-04
Forest Research Review 2009-04

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: potential for continued loblolly pine tree improvement, effects of thinning and fertilization in loblolly pine, American chestnut breeding program, longleaf pine provenance study, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, and southern red oak crop tree release and fertilization.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationchestnut competition-control diminished-species fertilizers genetics hardwood-silviculture insects intermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine longleaf-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices tree-improvementpublication
Forest Research Review 2010-03
Forest Research Review 2010-03

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: loblolly pine site index, stem sinuosity in loblolly pine, longleaf pine establishment methods, American chestnut, effects of competing hardwoods on loblolly pine, white pine competition control and storage time, tip moth control methods for loblolly pine, white oak crop tree release and fertilization.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationchestnut competition-control diminished-species fertilizers genetics growth-and-yield hardwood-silviculture insects intermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine longleaf-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices tree-improvement white-pinepublication
Forest Research Review 2010-10
Forest Research Review 2010-10

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: Forest Modeling Research Cooperative, potential for pine plantation woody biomass, stem forking in loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, interplanting loblolly pine, loblolly pine growth after age two hardwood control, site preparation vs. release for loblolly pine growth, initial seedling size and establishment methods for northern red oak.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control genetics growth-and-yield hardwood-silviculture intermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices tree-improvementpublication
Forest Research Review 2011-05
Forest Research Review 2011-05

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: thinning and fertilization in mid-rotation loblolly pine, loblolly pine planting spacing, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, timing of hardwood control in loblolly pine, longleaf pine provenance comparison, and white oak crop tree release.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control diminished-species fertilizers growth-and-yield hardwood-silviculture intermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine longleaf-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practicespublication
Forest Research Review 2012-08
Forest Research Review 2012-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: effects of pruning in loblolly pine, effects of planting density and fertilizer on loblolly pine growth, varietal vs open-pollinated loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, shortleaf pine provenance test, interplanting loblolly pine, tree shelter comparison for red oak in riparian buffers, crop tree release and fertilization of white oak and southern red oak.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control diminished-species fertilizers genetics growth-and-yield hardwood-silviculture intermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices riparian-forest-buffers shortleaf-pine tree-improvementpublication
Forest Research Review 2013-08
Forest Research Review 2013-08

Research reports and updates from ongoing VDOF studies. In this issue: fourth cycle loblolly pine tree breeding, spacing impacts on loblolly lumber quality, fertilizer fate and carbon sequestration in loblolly pine, logging slash for skid trail stabilization, longleaf pine provenances, growth and value of low-density loblolly pine plantations, projected value of interplanted loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, growth and value of loblolly pine after site prep vs. release, hardwood plantations in central VA, tree shelters for northern red oak

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control diminished-species ecosystem-services fertilizers forest-economics genetics growth-and-yield hardwood-silviculture intermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine longleaf-pine oak pine-silviculture planting-practices tree-improvementpublication
History of American Chestnut Restoration
History of American Chestnut Restoration

By Jerre Creighton, Research Program Manager – Presentation reviews the long history of restoration efforts to bring back the American chestnut.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationchestnutpresentation
Making Sense of the Genetics Market
Making Sense of the Genetics Market

Report explains loblolly pine genetics, tree improvement, and the evolution of seedling markets, and is intended to help landowners understand their choices in seedling genetics. Steve McKeand is Professor of Forestry and Environmental Resources and Director, North Carolina State University Cooperative Tree Improvement Program.

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Nine-Year Growth Responses to Planting Density Manipulation and Repeated Early Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine Stand in the Virginia Piedmont
Nine-Year Growth Responses to Planting Density Manipulation and Repeated Early Fertilization in a Loblolly Pine Stand in the Virginia Piedmont

Report provides results of a study of two planting densities (363 and 726 trees per acre) and three levels of nutrient additions aimed at maintaining the current site index (SI25) of the stand (55 ft.) or improving the SI25 to 70 and 80 ft. None of the treatments affected survival or height during the first 9 years, but both affected diameter growth. Colleen A. Carlson, Thomas R. Fox, Jerre Creighton, Phillip M. Dougherty, and John R. Johnson

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationfertilizers growth-and-yield loblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices soil-amendmentspublication
No. 001 A Comparison of Tree Growth and Development Between a Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Plantation Growing on Nason Soil in Orange County, Virginia; by H. W. Bashore and R. L. Marler
No. 001 A Comparison of Tree Growth and Development Between a Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Plantation Growing on Nason Soil in Orange County, Virginia; by H. W. Bashore and R. L. MarlerOR-001

Report summarizes field data gathered in Orange County, VA in shortleaf and loblolly pine plantations.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationdiminished-species growth-and-yield loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studies shortleaf-pinepublication
No. 002 Yellow-Poplar Growth and Yield Data on Selected Stands in Virginia; by R. L. Marler
No. 002 Yellow-Poplar Growth and Yield Data on Selected Stands in Virginia; by R. L. MarlerOR-002

Report provides field data on selected yellow-poplar stands gathered by the Virginia Division of Forestry in 1955. An effort was made to include field work measurements of existing plantings in addition to natural stands.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationgrowth-and-yield hardwood-silviculture research-studies yellow-poplarpublication
No. 003 Early Tree Plantings Starting to Pay in Virginia; by R. L. Marler
No. 003 Early Tree Plantings Starting to Pay in Virginia; by R. L. MarlerOR-003

Report summarizes selected data from a 1954 survey of older tree plantings intended to provide information on how old tree plantings were when first thinned and the dollar value of those thinnings.

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No. 004 Tree Planting Production Rates in Virginia; by R. L. Marler
No. 004 Tree Planting Production Rates in Virginia; by R. L. MarlerOR-004

Report summarizes cost and production rate data from more than 300 tree planting jobs during the 1955-1956 planting season.

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No. 005 Results of Helicopter Spraying of 2,4,5-T to Control Unwanted Hardwoods in Charlotte County, Virginia; by R. L. Marler
No. 005 Results of Helicopter Spraying of 2,4,5-T to Control Unwanted Hardwoods in Charlotte County, Virginia; by R. L. MarlerOR-005

Report provides results of a helicopter-applied herbicide treatment for controlling unwanted hardwoods in Charlotte County, VA.

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No. 006 Virginia's 1958 Pine Seed Tree Reproduction Survey
No. 006 Virginia’s 1958 Pine Seed Tree Reproduction SurveyOR-006

Report provides information regarding the relative effectiveness of the Pine Seed Tree Act in 12 Virginia counties between 1950 and 1955.

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No. 007 Aerial Spraying for Planting Site Preparation on the Buckingham State Forest; W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 007 Aerial Spraying for Planting Site Preparation on the Buckingham State Forest; W. F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-007

Report provides the results of a 1959 aerial herbicide application for site preparation of a 40-acre cutover hardwood stand on Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest.

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No. 008 Virginia Landowners Try Direct Seedling Loblolly Pine; by R. L. Marler
No. 008 Virginia Landowners Try Direct Seedling Loblolly Pine; by R. L. MarlerOR-008

Report provides first growing season results from loblolly pine direct seeded pilot areas in 15 counties.

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No. 009 Foliage Spraying to Control Hardwoods: Using a Trailer-Type Sprayer on the Buckingham State Forest; by W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 009 Foliage Spraying to Control Hardwoods: Using a Trailer-Type Sprayer on the Buckingham State Forest; by W. F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-009

Report provides the results of foliage spray tests to control hardwoods on the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest in 1959 and 1960.

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No. 010 Comparative Growth and Yield of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine in a Mixed Plantation; W.F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 010 Comparative Growth and Yield of Loblolly and Shortleaf Pine in a Mixed Plantation; W.F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-010

Report provides growth data from a 1937 Buckingham County plantation containing both loblolly and shortleaf pine that was thinned at age 19 and again at age 24, providing evidence of the more rapid growth of loblolly pine.

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No. 011 Some Virginia Direct Seeding Results for 1961
No. 011 Some Virginia Direct Seeding Results for 1961OR-011

Report provides first growing season results from white and loblolly pine direct seeded pilot areas in 1961.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practices white-pinepublication
No. 012 Direct Seeding Can Provide a Low Cost Method of Establishing Pine; by W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 012 Direct Seeding Can Provide a Low Cost Method of Establishing Pine; by W. F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-012

Report provides the results of the successful conversion of a low-grade hardwood stand to loblolly pine by direct seeding on seven acres at the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 013 Fertilization of Planted Loblolly Pine Seedlings Fails to Increase Height Growth; by W. A. Hubble, Jr., T. A. Dierauf, W. F. Custard and R. L. Marler
No. 013 Fertilization of Planted Loblolly Pine Seedlings Fails to Increase Height Growth; by W. A. Hubble, Jr., T. A. Dierauf, W. F. Custard and R. L. MarlerOR-013

Report provides height growth comparisons from four trials where fertilizer was applied to newly-planted loblolly pine seedlings.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationfertilizers intermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 014 Plowing Versus Chemical Sod Control; by J. G. Swiand R. L. Marler
No. 014 Plowing Versus Chemical Sod Control; by J. G. Swiand R. L. MarlerOR-014

Report provides age three results from a study of chemical and mechanical control methods of sod control in an old-field loblolly pine planting.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control pine-silviculture research-studies site-preparationpublication
No. 015 Backpack Mist Blower Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 015 Backpack Mist Blower Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-015

Report provides first-year results from 32 plots testing backpack mist blower applications of herbicides for hardwood competition control in pine stands of the Piedmont and coastal plain.

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No. 016 Covering Pine Seeds Produces More Seedlings; by E. H. Robertson and R. L. Marler
No. 016 Covering Pine Seeds Produces More Seedlings; by E. H. Robertson and R. L. MarlerOR-016

Report provides first-year results from spot-seeded plots comparing uncovered and lightly-covered (with soil) treatments for establishing loblolly and shortleaf pine.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studies seedling-handling sowing-seedpublication
No. 017 Results of 1962 Broadcast Seedlings on Private Lands in Virginia; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 017 Results of 1962 Broadcast Seedlings on Private Lands in Virginia; by T. A. DieraufOR-017

Report provides one-year results from 34 plots direct-seeded with loblolly, Virginia and white pine.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studies seeding-practices virginia-pine white-pinepublication
No. 018 Pine Spot Seeding, 1962 Results; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 018 Pine Spot Seeding, 1962 Results; by T. A. DieraufOR-018

Report provides first-year results of a study to test spot seeding as a method of establishing loblolly, Virginia and shortleaf pine on cutover land.

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No. 019 Tree Planting Survival: A 3-Year Study; by R. L. Marler
No. 019 Tree Planting Survival: A 3-Year Study; by R. L. MarlerOR-019

Report summarizes a three-year study of planting survival of loblolly, shortleaf and white pine, including more than 3,300 different plantings.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationdiminished-species loblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practices shortleaf-pine white-pinepublication
No. 020 Tractor-Mounted Mist Blower Study; William Mc. Newman; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 020 Tractor-Mounted Mist Blower Study; William Mc. Newman; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-020

Report summarizes 1961 and 1962 tests of the use and effectiveness of a tractor-mounted mist blower to control hardwoods using different herbicides and rates at Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest.

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No. 021 Yield of Planted Loblolly Pine in Piedmont and Coastal Plain VA; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 021 Yield of Planted Loblolly Pine in Piedmont and Coastal Plain VA; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-021

Report provides pulpwood yield information for planted loblolly pine in the piedmont and coastal plain of Virginia.

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No. 022 Yellow-Poplar Direct Seeding and Planting Study; by J. W. Hodge, Jr. and T. A. Dierauf
No. 022 Yellow-Poplar Direct Seeding and Planting Study; by J. W. Hodge, Jr. and T. A. DieraufOR-022

Report provides four-year results from a 1961-62 study comparing stratified and non-stratified seed on planted 1-0 seedlings of yellow-poplar on an old field in Augusta County, VA.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationhardwood-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practices yellow-poplarpublication
No. 023 Height Comparisons of Direct Seeded and Planted Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 023 Height Comparisons of Direct Seeded and Planted Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. DieraufOR-023

Report compares height growth of loblolly pine established by direct seeding and planting after three and five growing seasons.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 024 White Pine Spot Seeding Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 024 White Pine Spot Seeding Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-024

Report provides three-year results of study plots testing spot seeding as a method of establishing white pine on cutover land in the mountains.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationpine-silviculture research-studies seeding-practices white-pinepublication
No. 025 Direct Seeding Loblolly Pine in Piedmont VA; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. Marler
No. 025 Direct Seeding Loblolly Pine in Piedmont VA; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. MarlerOR-025

Report summarizes results from a series of loblolly pine direct seeding studies established between 1961 and 1964 at Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest.

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No. 026 Dybar for Planting Site Preparation; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 026 Dybar for Planting Site Preparation; by T. A. DieraufOR-026

Report provides hardwood control results from a series of plots established in 1964 and 1965 testing the herbicide Dybnar at a range of rates.

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No. 027 Clay Dipped vs. Bare Rooted Survival; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 027 Clay Dipped vs. Bare Rooted Survival; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-027

Report provides results of 1965 and 1966 studies evaluating clay-dipped compared to bare-rooted preparation methods of packaging, storing and shipping loblolly and white pine seedlings.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies white-pinepublication
No. 028 A Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Flowering Phenology Study; by R. G. Wasser
No. 028 A Shortleaf and Loblolly Pine Flowering Phenology Study; by R. G. WasserOR-028

Report provides results of a 1967 study to compare flowering dates of the different genetic lines of loblolly and shortleaf pines in the VDOF seed orchard at that time.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationdiminished-species loblolly-pine research-studies shortleaf-pine tree-improvementpublication
No. 029 A Loblolly Pine "Super Seedling" Study; by R. W. Slocum, R. G. Wasser, and R. L. Marler
No. 029 A Loblolly Pine “Super Seedling” Study; by R. W. Slocum, R. G. Wasser, and R. L. MarlerOR-029

Report provides 11-year results of a study comparing the growth of loblolly seedlings selected as average and superior height in the nursery bed.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationgrowth-and-yield loblolly-pine nursery-practices research-studiespublication
No. 030 Treating Individual Trees with Dybar; by T. A. Dierauf and R. B. Geddes
No. 030 Treating Individual Trees with Dybar; by T. A. Dierauf and R. B. GeddesOR-030

Report provides results of a 1965 study of Dybar using different rates and application methods for control of residual hardwoods on a bulldozed site.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control pine-silviculture research-studies site-preparationpublication
No. 031 Loblolly Pine Cold Storage Planting Study; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 031 Loblolly Pine Cold Storage Planting Study; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-031

Report provides three-year survival and height comparison of different nursery cold storage times and clay-dipped vs. bare-root loblolly pine.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices research-studiespublication
No. 032 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Established by Direct Seeding; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. Marler
No. 032 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Established by Direct Seeding; by W. M. Newman, T. A. Dierauf, and R. L. MarlerOR-032

Report provides results of a study evaluating the effects of first-year seedling height and presence of secondary needles on subsequent performance of direct seeded loblolly pine after two to four growing seasons.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationgrowth-and-yield loblolly-pine research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 033 Damage from Mist Blowing to Recently Planted and Germinated Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf, W. M. Newman, and S. F. Warner
No. 033 Damage from Mist Blowing to Recently Planted and Germinated Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf, W. M. Newman, and S. F. WarnerOR-033

Report provides data from a study of damage from mist-blowing herbicides on planted or direct seeded loblolly pine after five growing seasons.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 034 Exposure, Clay Treatment and Storage of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 034 Exposure, Clay Treatment and Storage of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-034

Report provides three-year results from a study of the effects of exposure, clay dipping and storage time on survival and growth of loblolly pine seedlings.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 035 A Three-Year White Pine Direct Seeding Study; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 035 A Three-Year White Pine Direct Seeding Study; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-035

Report provides results of a three-year study of direct seeding of white pine in Floyd County, VA.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationresearch-studies seeding-practices white-pinepublication
No. 036 Effectiveness of an Underground Storage Unit for Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. Marler
No. 036 Effectiveness of an Underground Storage Unit for Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and R. L. MarlerOR-036

Report compares the use of an underground storage unit and an open shed for storing loblolly pine seedlings.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices research-studiespublication
No. 037 Direct Seeding and Planting Virginia and Loblolly Pine on Sites Prepared by Burning; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner, and R. L. Marler
No. 037 Direct Seeding and Planting Virginia and Loblolly Pine on Sites Prepared by Burning; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner, and R. L. MarlerOR-037

Report provides results of a test of direct seeding of Virginia pine compared to planting of both Virginia and loblolly pines.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practices virginia-pinepublication
No. 038 A Three-year Loblolly Pie Direct Seeding Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 038 A Three-year Loblolly Pie Direct Seeding Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-038

Report summarizes stocking and height data from a study of direct seeding loblolly pine on coastal plain soil in Chesterfield County, VA.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 039 Loblolly Pine Planting Date Study; by J. W. Garner
No. 039 Loblolly Pine Planting Date Study; by J. W. GarnerOR-039

Report compares three-year survival and height for loblolly pine seedlings planted monthly from December through June, 1969.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 040 Effect of Seedling Grade on Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 040 Effect of Seedling Grade on Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. DieraufOR-040

Report provides a three-year summary of a study comparing loblolly pine seedlings of a range of root collar diameters, top lengths and maturity.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices research-studiespublication
No. 041 Rough Land Tree Planter Study; by J. W. Garner and T. A. Dierauf
No. 041 Rough Land Tree Planter Study; by J. W. Garner and T. A. DieraufOR-041

Report summarizes two-year survival and height growth of loblolly pine on hand- and machine-planted plots.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 042 A Comparison of Planting, Spot Seeding and Broadcast Seeding of Loblolly Pine; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 042 A Comparison of Planting, Spot Seeding and Broadcast Seeding of Loblolly Pine; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-042

Report provides results of a five-year trial of planting, spot seeding and broadcast seeding on 10 different tracts.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 043 Effect of Time in Cold Storage on Loblolly Pine Seedling Survival; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 043 Effect of Time in Cold Storage on Loblolly Pine Seedling Survival; by T. A. DieraufOR-043

Report provides survival and height growth of dormant and non-dormant loblolly pine seedlings after cold storage ranging from zero to three months through age three.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 044 Effect of Freezing on Survival of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by J. W. Garner and T. A. Dierauf
No. 044 Effect of Freezing on Survival of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by J. W. Garner and T. A. DieraufOR-044

Report provides results of a two-year survival of loblolly pine seedlings exposed for two and three days to temperatures of 12 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit prior to planting.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 045 Kraft Bags Versus Conventional Packaging: Effects on Survival; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 045 Kraft Bags Versus Conventional Packaging: Effects on Survival; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-045

Report provides results of two studies installed in 1970 with the purposes of 1) comparing survival of loblolly pine seedlings packed in kraft paper bags with seedlings packed in conventional packages, and 2) assessing the effects of varied periods of exposure to the sun prior to planting.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 046 Predicting Number of Sound Seeds per Cone from a Cone Cutting Study in Twelve-Year-Old Loblolly Orchard; by T. A. Dierauf and R. G. Wasser
No. 046 Predicting Number of Sound Seeds per Cone from a Cone Cutting Study in Twelve-Year-Old Loblolly Orchard; by T. A. Dierauf and R. G. WasserOR-046

Report summarizes data and prediction models for estimating seed yields per cone of 20 different coastal plain and piedmont cones in the VDOF loblolly pine seed orchard.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies tree-improvementpublication
No. 047 A Test of Agricol as a Root Dip; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 047 A Test of Agricol as a Root Dip; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-047

Report provides three-year results from a study comparing loblolly pine seedlings root-dipped in water, kaolin clay suspension, and Agricol, and exposed to the sun and air for 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes prior to planting.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 048 Height Growth of Planted and Direct Seeded Loblolly Pine; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 048 Height Growth of Planted and Direct Seeded Loblolly Pine; by T. A. DieraufOR-048

Report provides eight-year height growth of planted and direct seeded loblolly pines on piedmont and coastal plain sites.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationgrowth-and-yield loblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 049 Yield of Old Field Shortleaf Pine Plantations; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 049 Yield of Old Field Shortleaf Pine Plantations; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-049

Report summarizes yield data from 57 shortleaf pine stands in 40 different plantations in 25 different piedmont and mountain counties.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationdiminished-species growth-and-yield pine-silviculture research-studies shortleaf-pinepublication
No. 050 Changes in Loblolly Pine Seedling Dry Weight and Top to Root Ratio Between October and March; by J. W. Garner and T. A. Dierauf
No. 050 Changes in Loblolly Pine Seedling Dry Weight and Top to Root Ratio Between October and March; by J. W. Garner and T. A. DieraufOR-050

Report provides an analysis of dry weights and root:shoot ratios of loblolly pine seedlings lifted from nursery beds at monthly intervals between October 1, 1973 and March 1, 1974.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 051 Cold Damage to Loblolly Seedlings at New Kent Nursery; by T. A. Dierauf and H. L. Olinger
No. 051 Cold Damage to Loblolly Seedlings at New Kent Nursery; by T. A. Dierauf and H. L. OlingerOR-051

Report documents the extent and patterns of damage to loblolly pine seedlings in nursery beds at New Kent Forestry Center following the exceptionally cold temperatures of November 1976 – January 1977.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices research-studiespublication
No. 052 Root Pruning Loblolly Pine Seedlings, Effect on Survival and Growth; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 052 Root Pruning Loblolly Pine Seedlings, Effect on Survival and Growth; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-052Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine planting-practices research-studies root-treatments seeding-practices seedling-handlingpublication
No. 053 Does Interplanting Increase Yield?; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner and H.L. Olinger
No. 053 Does Interplanting Increase Yield?; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner and H.L. OlingerOR-053Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 054 1974 Loblolly Pine Seed Sizing Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 054 1974 Loblolly Pine Seed Sizing Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-054Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-grade seedling-handlingpublication
No. 055 Results of Root Wrenching in a Sandy Nursery Soil; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 055 Results of Root Wrenching in a Sandy Nursery Soil; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-055Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies root-treatments seedling-handlingpublication
No. 056 Loblolly Seed Bed Density Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 056 Loblolly Seed Bed Density Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-056Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-handling sowing-seedpublication
No. 057 Effects of Seedling Size, Herbicides, Fertilizer, and Coppicing on Survival and Growth of Planted Black Walnut Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 057 Effects of Seedling Size, Herbicides, Fertilizer, and Coppicing on Survival and Growth of Planted Black Walnut Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-057Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationblack-walnut planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 058 A Study of Undercutting, Lateral Root Pruning, Top Clipping in Loblolly Pine Nursery Beds; by T. A. Dierauf and H. L. Olinger
No. 058 A Study of Undercutting, Lateral Root Pruning, Top Clipping in Loblolly Pine Nursery Beds; by T. A. Dierauf and H. L. OlingerOR-058Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies root-treatments seedling-handlingpublication
No. 059 Two Tests of Potassium Fertilizations to Induce Earlier Dormancy of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 059 Two Tests of Potassium Fertilizations to Induce Earlier Dormancy of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. DieraufOR-059Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-handling soil-amendmentspublication
No. 060 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 1; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 060 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 1; by T. A. DieraufOR-060Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 061 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 2; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 061 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 2; by T. A. DieraufOR-061Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 062 Direct Seeding Black Walnut Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 062 Direct Seeding Black Walnut Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-062Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationblack-walnut planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 063 A Comparison of "Normal Depth" with "Deep Planting" of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 063 A Comparison of “Normal Depth” with “Deep Planting” of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. DieraufOR-063Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 064 Survival of Root-Pruned Loblolly Pine Seedlings ALong-Term Cold Storage; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 064 Survival of Root-Pruned Loblolly Pine Seedlings ALong-Term Cold Storage; by T. A. DieraufOR-064Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine planting-practices research-studies root-treatments seeding-practices seedling-handlingpublication
No. 065 Results at Age 23 of a Loblolly Pine Pre-Commercial Thinning Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 065 Results at Age 23 of a Loblolly Pine Pre-Commercial Thinning Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-065Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationintermediate-stand-treatments loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 066 A Three-Year Study of Immersing Stored Loblolly Pine Seedlings in Water Before Planting; by T. A. Dierauf and L. C. Edwards
No. 066 A Three-Year Study of Immersing Stored Loblolly Pine Seedlings in Water Before Planting; by T. A. Dierauf and L. C. EdwardsOR-066Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine outplanting research-studies seedling-handlingpublication
No. 067 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 3; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 067 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 3; by T. A. DieraufOR-067Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 068 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 4; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 068 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 4; by T. A. DieraufOR-068Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 069 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 5; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 069 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 5; by T. A. DieraufOR-069Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 070 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 6; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 070 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 6; by T. A. DieraufOR-070Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 071 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Damaged by an Early Hail Storm; by T. A. Dierauf, R. S. Jenkins, and D. L. Hixson
No. 071 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Damaged by an Early Hail Storm; by T. A. Dierauf, R. S. Jenkins, and D. L. HixsonOR-071Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationforest-health-impacts loblolly-pine outplanting pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 072 An Undercutting Study in Loblolly Pine Seedbeds; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 072 An Undercutting Study in Loblolly Pine Seedbeds; by T. A. DieraufOR-072Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies root-treatments seedling-handlingpublication
No. 073 A Two-Year Study Comparing Five Sowing Depths for Loblolly Pine Seed; by T. A Dierauf and L. J. Apgar
No. 073 A Two-Year Study Comparing Five Sowing Depths for Loblolly Pine Seed; by T. A Dierauf and L. J. ApgarOR-073Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-handling sowing-seed tree-improvementpublication
No. 074 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 7; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 074 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 7; by T. A. DieraufOR-074Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 075 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 8; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 075 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 8; by T. A. DieraufOR-075Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 076 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 9; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 076 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 9; by T. A. DieraufOR-076Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 077 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 10; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 077 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 10; by T. A. DieraufOR-077Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 078 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 11; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 078 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 11; by T. A. DieraufOR-078Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 079 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 12; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 079 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 12; by T. A. DieraufOR-079Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 080 Performance of Pine Needles and Wood Chip Mulches Compared to No Mulch on Loblolly Pine Seedbeds; by T. A. Dierauf and L. J. Apgar
No. 080 Performance of Pine Needles and Wood Chip Mulches Compared to No Mulch on Loblolly Pine Seedbeds; by T. A. Dierauf and L. J. ApgarOR-080Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-handling soil-amendmentspublication
No. 081 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Damaged by an Early Wind Storm; by L. J. Apgar
No. 081 Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Damaged by an Early Wind Storm; by L. J. ApgarOR-081Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationforest-health-impacts loblolly-pine outplanting pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 082 Root Pruning White Pine Seedlings Prior to Planting; by T. A. Dierauf and H. Hannah
No. 082 Root Pruning White Pine Seedlings Prior to Planting; by T. A. Dierauf and H. HannahOR-082Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationresearch-studies seedling-handling white-pinepublication
No. 083 Early Planting, Over-Winter Storage, and Late Planting of White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 083 Early Planting, Over-Winter Storage, and Late Planting of White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. DieraufOR-083Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationpine-silviculture research-studies seedling-handling white-pinepublication
No. 084 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 13; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 084 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 13; by T. A. DieraufOR-084Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 085 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 14; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 085 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 14; by T. A. DieraufOR-085Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 086 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 15; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 086 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 15; by T. A. DieraufOR-086Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 087 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 16; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 087 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 16; by T. A. DieraufOR-087Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 088 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 17; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 088 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 17; by T. A. DieraufOR-088Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 089 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No.18; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 089 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No.18; by T. A. DieraufOR-089Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 090 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 19; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 090 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 19; by T. A. DieraufOR-090Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 091 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 20; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 091 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 20; by T. A. DieraufOR-091Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 092 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 21; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 092 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 21; by T. A. DieraufOR-092Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 093 A Three-Year Loblolly Pine Seedbed Irrigation Study; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. Chandler
No. 093 A Three-Year Loblolly Pine Seedbed Irrigation Study; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. ChandlerOR-093Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationirrigation loblolly-pine research-studies seedling-handlingpublication
No. 094 A Five-Year Study of Different Sawdust and Nitrogen Rates in a Loblolly Pine Nursery; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 094 A Five-Year Study of Different Sawdust and Nitrogen Rates in a Loblolly Pine Nursery; by T. A. DieraufOR-094Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-handling soil-amendmentspublication
No. 095 Comparison of Loblolly and Virginia Pine Yields; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 095 Comparison of Loblolly and Virginia Pine Yields; by T. A. DieraufOR-095Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationgrowth-and-yield loblolly-pine research-studies virginia-pinepublication
No. 096 Diameter Growth Following an Understory Prescribed Burn; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 096 Diameter Growth Following an Understory Prescribed Burn; by T. A. DieraufOR-096Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationintermediate-stand-treatments pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 097 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 22; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 097 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 22; by T. A. DieraufOR-097Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 098 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 23; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 098 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 23; by T. A. DieraufOR-098Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 099 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 24; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 099 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 24; by T. A. DieraufOR-099Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 100 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 25; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 100 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 25; by T. A. DieraufOR-100Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 101 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 26; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 101 Loblolly Pine Release Study Report No. 26; by T. A. DieraufOR-101Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 102 Loblolly Pine Release Response to Complete Elimination of Understory Vegetation; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 102 Loblolly Pine Release Response to Complete Elimination of Understory Vegetation; by T. A. DieraufOR-102Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 103 A Three-Year Loblolly Pine Direct Seeding Study: Yields at Age 24; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 103 A Three-Year Loblolly Pine Direct Seeding Study: Yields at Age 24; by T. A. DieraufOR-103Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 104 Lateral Roots Extending From the Planting Hole - How Serious?; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 104 Lateral Roots Extending From the Planting Hole – How Serious?; by T. A. DieraufOR-104Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 105 Stripping Lateral Roots From Loblolly During Lifting; by T. A. Dierauf, L. A. Chandler, and D. L. Hixson
No. 105 Stripping Lateral Roots From Loblolly During Lifting; by T. A. Dierauf, L. A. Chandler, and D. L. HixsonOR-105Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies root-treatments seedling-handlingpublication
No. 106 A Three-year Loblolly Pine Interplanting Study on Site-Prepared Forestland; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 106 A Three-year Loblolly Pine Interplanting Study on Site-Prepared Forestland; by T. A. DieraufOR-106Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practicespublication
No. 107 Loblolly Pine Seedling Grade - Effect on Survival and Growth Through 20 Years; by T. A. Dierauf, J. A. Scrivani, and L. A. Chandler
No. 107 Loblolly Pine Seedling Grade – Effect on Survival and Growth Through 20 Years; by T. A. Dierauf, J. A. Scrivani, and L. A. ChandlerOR-107Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-grade seedling-handlingpublication
No. 108 25- and 26-Year Measurement of Loblolly Pine Seedling Grade Study; by T. A. Dierauf
No. 108 25- and 26-Year Measurement of Loblolly Pine Seedling Grade Study; by T. A. DieraufOR-108Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-grade seedling-handlingpublication
No. 109 Effect of Initial Root Collar Diameter on Survival and Growth of Yellow Poplar Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 109 Effect of Initial Root Collar Diameter on Survival and Growth of Yellow Poplar Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-109Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationhardwood-silviculture research-studies yellow-poplarpublication
No. 110 The Effect of Mycorrhizae on Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. Chandler
No. 110 The Effect of Mycorrhizae on Survival and Growth of Loblolly Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. ChandlerOR-110Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-handling soil-amendmentspublication
No. 111 The Paul Forest Hardwood Pre-Commercial Thinning, Study at Age 27; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Hodge, and J. A. Scrivani
No. 111 The Paul Forest Hardwood Pre-Commercial Thinning, Study at Age 27; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Hodge, and J. A. ScrivaniOR-111Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationhardwood-silviculture research-studies timber-stand-improvementpublication
No. 112 A Black Walnut Seed-Source-Elevation Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 112 A Black Walnut Seed-Source-Elevation Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-112Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationblack-walnut hardwood-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 113 Controlling Herbaceous Competition and Tip Moth - Effects A16 Years; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani
No. 113 Controlling Herbaceous Competition and Tip Moth – Effects A16 Years; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. ScrivaniOR-113Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control pine-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 114 Natural Straightening of Young Black Walnut; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. Garner
No. 114 Natural Straightening of Young Black Walnut; by T. A. Dierauf and J. W. GarnerOR-114Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationblack-walnut hardwood-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 115 Additional Tests of Root Pruning Loblolly Seedlings in the Seedbed; by T. A. Dierauf, J. A. Scrivani, and L. A. Chandler
No. 115 Additional Tests of Root Pruning Loblolly Seedlings in the Seedbed; by T. A. Dierauf, J. A. Scrivani, and L. A. ChandlerOR-115Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies root-treatments seedling-handlingpublication
No. 116 Root Pruning White Pine Seedlings in the Seedbeds; by T. A. Dierauf, J. A. Scrivani, and L. A. Chandler
No. 116 Root Pruning White Pine Seedlings in the Seedbeds; by T. A. Dierauf, J. A. Scrivani, and L. A. ChandlerOR-116Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationresearch-studies seedling-handling white-pinepublication
No. 117 Planting 1-0 White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. Chandler
No. 117 Planting 1-0 White Pine Seedlings; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. ChandlerOR-117Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationpine-silviculture research-studies white-pinepublication
No. 118 A Study of Diameter Growth in Black Walnut Stands; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner, and J. A. Scrivani
No. 118 A Study of Diameter Growth in Black Walnut Stands; by T. A. Dierauf, J. W. Garner, and J. A. ScrivaniOR-118Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationblack-walnut hardwood-silviculture research-studiespublication
No. 119 Ripping to Improve Loblolly Seedling Survival and Growth; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani
No. 119 Ripping to Improve Loblolly Seedling Survival and Growth; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. ScrivaniOR-119Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture research-studies site-preparationpublication
No. 120 Field Performance of Grade 1 and 2 Loblolly Seedlings from a Top Clipping Study; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. Chandler
No. 120 Field Performance of Grade 1 and 2 Loblolly Seedlings from a Top Clipping Study; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. ChandlerOR-120Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-grade seedling-handling top-clippingpublication
No. 121 Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization Rate in the Seedbed on Growth in the Field; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. Chandler
No. 121 Effect of Nitrogen Fertilization Rate in the Seedbed on Growth in the Field; by T. A. Dierauf and L. A. ChandlerOR-121Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-handling soil-amendmentspublication
No. 122 Sowing Five Clonal Lots of Loblolly Seed Separately or Randomly Mixed - Results A20 Years; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani
No. 122 Sowing Five Clonal Lots of Loblolly Seed Separately or Randomly Mixed – Results A20 Years; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. ScrivaniOR-122Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine research-studies seedling-handling sowing-seed tree-improvementpublication
No. 123 White Pine Old-Field Plantation Yields Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. Scrivani
No. 123 White Pine Old-Field Plantation Yields Study; by T. A. Dierauf and J. A. ScrivaniOR-123Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationpine-silviculture research-studies white-pinepublication
No. 124 Wide-Spacing Plantings of Loblolly Pine - Age 15 Results; by J. A. Scrivani and W.F. Bowman
No. 124 Wide-Spacing Plantings of Loblolly Pine – Age 15 Results; by J. A. Scrivani and W.F. BowmanOR-124Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 125 Effects of Storage, Handling and Tranportation on Eastern White Pine 1st-Year Survival and Height; by Jerre L. Creighton and Wayne F. Bowman
No. 125 Effects of Storage, Handling and Tranportation on Eastern White Pine 1st-Year Survival and Height; by Jerre L. Creighton and Wayne F. BowmanOR-125Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationpine-silviculture planting-practices research-studies seeding-practices seedling-handling white-pinepublication
No. 126 Factors Limiting Early Development of Riparian Hardwood Plantings in Page, Shenandoah, Warren and Rockingham Counties in Virginia (2010-2013)
No. 126 Factors Limiting Early Development of Riparian Hardwood Plantings in Page, Shenandoah, Warren and Rockingham Counties in Virginia (2010-2013)RR-126

Thousands of hardwood seedlings are planted in Virginia every year through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP). The plantings are inspected initially and again two to three years later to monitor success. Report summarizes the results of those inspections and underscores the influence natural impacts and maintenance can have on the success of planting.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationgrowth-and-yield riparian-forest-bufferspublication
No. 127 Seven-Year Evaluation of Biosolids as a Fertilizer in Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine
No. 127 Seven-Year Evaluation of Biosolids as a Fertilizer in Mid-Rotation Loblolly PineRR-127

Biosolids are solid and liquid materials produced from the treatment of municipal sewage sludge, commonly applied as a fertilizer material on agricultural fields. Most forestland in Virginia becomes nitrogen-limited as the stand develops. Report summarizes the results of a seven-year-old study to examine the effects of biosolids applied as fertilizers to a mid-rotation loblolly pine plantation in Essex County, showing that pine trees benefit from the biosolids much as they would from traditional inorganic fertilizers.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine pine-silviculturepublication
No. 128 Growth Response of White Oak to Repeated Crop Tree Release and Fertilization
No. 128 Growth Response of White Oak to Repeated Crop Tree Release and FertilizationRR-128

Report of nine-year responses from a study installed in a 15-year-old mixed hardwood stand to assess the combined effects of crop tree release and fertilization on the growth of white oak.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcrop-tree-release hardwood-silviculture oak research-studiespublication
No. 129 Surfactant Chemistry
No. 129 Surfactant ChemistryRR-129

The choice of surfactant can be critical in determining the outcome of an herbicide application. Research report reviews important factors to consider, including solution chemistry, herbicides state, surfactant type and chemistry, and important considerations for glyphosate herbicides. It also includes a case study.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control pine-silviculturepublication
No. 130 Site Prep vs. Release for Woody Competition Control in Loblolly Pine: 10-Year Growth and Projected Financial Returns
No. 130 Site Prep vs. Release for Woody Competition Control in Loblolly Pine: 10-Year Growth and Projected Financial ReturnsRR-130

A study of the effects on loblolly pine growth of seven herbicide competition control alternatives was installed at the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest between July 2005 and August 2007. After 10 years, analysis of variance indicates that hardwood competition control has had a significant (P<0.01) positive effect on pine growth (basal area and volume).

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control loblolly-pine pine-silviculturepublication
No. 131 Development of Loblolly Pine Interplanted One Year After Simulated First-Year Mortality
No. 131 Development of Loblolly Pine Interplanted One Year After Simulated First-Year MortalityRR-131

Report discusses a study that was installed in the spring of 2007 at Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest to examine the effects of interplanting loblolly pine seedlings in plots with varying levels of simulated seedling mortality in a one-year-old plantation.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationforest-economics loblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practicespublication
No. 132 Growth Projection and Discounted Cash Flow as Decision Tools for Loblolly Pine Silviculture
No. 132 Growth Projection and Discounted Cash Flow as Decision Tools for Loblolly Pine SilvicultureRR-132

Report provides projected yields from a study of the effects of competition control alternatives on loblolly pine growth were used to calculate present values of different scenarios comparing alternate rates of return (interest rates), rotation lengths, hardwood competition levels, thinning strategies, product prices, site qualities and establishment wait times.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationforest-economics growth-and-yield research-studiespublication
No. 133 Loblolly Pine Productivity after Five Years Growing in Four Planting Configurations
No. 133 Loblolly Pine Productivity after Five Years Growing in Four Planting ConfigurationsRR-133

Report provides five-year results from a study comparing the growth and productivity of loblolly pine planted at varying densities in four planting configurations intended to produce shorter-rotation (biofuel or pulpwood) vs. longer-rotation (chip-n-saw or sawtimber) products.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 134 Effects of Planting Date (Month) on Longleaf Pine Survival in Virginia
No. 134 Effects of Planting Date (Month) on Longleaf Pine Survival in VirginiaRR-134

Report provides an update on the effects of planting date on longleaf pine survival in Virginia.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationdiminished-species longleaf-pine pine-silviculture planting-practicespublication
No. 135 Growth of Loblolly Pine Planted at Low Densities
No. 135 Growth of Loblolly Pine Planted at Low DensitiesRR-135

Report provides age 22 data from a study installed on the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest between 1990 and 1993 to compare the tree growth and stand-level productivity of plots planted with 200, 300 and 400 seedlings per acre (spa).

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationforest-economics loblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 136 Ten-Year Performance of Eight Longleaf Pine Provenances in Virginia
No. 136 Ten-Year Performance of Eight Longleaf Pine Provenances in VirginiaRR-136Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationdiminished-species longleaf-pine tree-improvementpublication
No. 137 Controlling American Holly with Basal Sprays of Triclopyr
No. 137 Controlling American Holly with Basal Sprays of TriclopyrRR-137

Report describes two-year results of a test of the herbicide triclopyr ester (product name Garlon 4 Ultra) applied as a basal spray to control American holly in the understory of mixed hardwood stands. Rates as low as 5% applied in February or 20% applied in March were highly effective.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control hardwood-silviculture invasive-speciespublication
No. 138 Early Performance of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Lifted with Two Nursery Lifting Machines
No. 138 Early Performance of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Lifted with Two Nursery Lifting MachinesRR-138

A report from a three-year study to determine whether the root beater mechanism (reciprocating vs. oscillating) on the lifters used at the Garland Gray nursery affected either survival or growth of seedlings after planting.  Results indicate no statistically significant effects of lifter on either attribute.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices research-studiespublication
No. 139 First-Year Performance of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Stored in Open-Ended Bundles Compared to Kraft Bags
No. 139 First-Year Performance of Loblolly Pine Seedlings Stored in Open-Ended Bundles Compared to Kraft BagsRR-139

Report summarizes results of a study installed in 2020 to compare packaging and storage of loblolly pine seedlings in open-ended bundles and multi-walled kraft / polyethylene bags.  After one growing season, there was no statistically significant difference in either survival or height growth.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices research-studiespublication
No. 140 Comparison of Early Performance of Containerized and Bare-Root Loblolly Pine Seedlings Planted from October through April
No. 140 Comparison of Early Performance of Containerized and Bare-Root Loblolly Pine Seedlings Planted from October through AprilRR-140

Report provides two-year results of a test to compare loblolly pine seedlings propagated in containers to those raised in traditional beds and planted “bare-root” in October, November, December, February, March, and April. Container seedlings survived and grew well if planted in the fall or spring but not in winter, while bare-root seedlings performed acceptably at all planting dates.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationloblolly-pine nursery-practices planting-practices research-studiespublication
No. 141 Performance of Four Hybrid Poplars and Three Native Hardwoods in Plantations in Central Virginia at Age 14
No. 141 Performance of Four Hybrid Poplars and Three Native Hardwoods in Plantations in Central Virginia at Age 14RR-141

Report provides 14-year results of a test to compare plantations of three native hardwood species and four hybrid poplar crosses to loblolly pine for potential fiber production.  Of the eight species/hybrids tested, only one hybrid poplar cross – Populus trichocarpa x deltoides – survived and grew well.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationgenetics hardwood-silviculture loblolly-pine outplanting research-studies yellow-poplarpublication
Oak Shelterwood: A Technique to Improve Oak Regeneration
Oak Shelterwood: A Technique to Improve Oak RegenerationSP-676

Article reviews a method of involving a well-timed, mid-story removal to improve the number and vigor of oak advance regeneration and a subsequent overstory removal to facilitate regeneration of the stand. Jeff Stringer, Extension Professor of Hardwood Silviculture, Department of Forestry, University of Kentucky.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationhardwood-silviculture intermediate-stand-treatments oakpublication
Preserving Longleaf Pine in Virginia - Restoring Our Native Species
Preserving Longleaf Pine in Virginia – Restoring Our Native SpeciesFT0008

Forestry topic information sheet encourages the preservation of the native species longleaf pine, including the history of longleaf, why preserve longleaf, VDOF’s longleaf research, native Virginia longleaf, and cost-share programs available. Printed copies available.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationdiminished-species forestry-topics longleaf-pinepublication
Research to Bring Back a Resistant American Chestnut
Research to Bring Back a Resistant American Chestnut

By Jerre Creighton, Research Program Manager – Presentation is a pictorial view of the research efforst to bring back an American chestnut resistant to the blight.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationchestnutpresentation
Rotation-Age Results from a Loblolly Pine Spacing Trial
Rotation-Age Results from a Loblolly Pine Spacing Trial

Report provides cubic-foot volume yields for particular product definitions from a 25-year-old loblolly pine spacing trial and shows how closely, in the absence of thinning, total and merchantable wood production are linked to initial spacing. The results of this study suggest that no single planting density will be optimal for all management objectives. Ralph L. Amateis and Harold E. Burkhart.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationgrowth-and-yield loblolly-pine pine-silviculture planting-practices research-studiespublication
Success of Riparian Restoration Projects in the Mountains, Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Virginia
Success of Riparian Restoration Projects in the Mountains, Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Virginia

Report provides results from a summer 2006 evaluation of 63 CREP sites located in the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley regions of VA. Findings indicated that additional efforts should be made to ensure fencing is maintained, species selections are based on site conditions, and invasive species are controlled. Benjamin N. Bradburn, W. Michael Aust, Mathew B. Carroll, Dean Cumbia, and Jerre Creighton.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationecosystem-services hardwood-silviculture planting-practices riparian-forest-bufferspublication
The Development of Pine Plantation Silviculture in the Southern United States
The Development of Pine Plantation Silviculture in the Southern United States

Article reviews the contributions of applied silvicultural research in tree improvement, nursery management, site preparation, weed control, and fertilization to plantation forestry in the South. Thomas R. Fox, Eric J. Jokela, and H. Lee Allen.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationcompetition-control fertilizers growth-and-yield loblolly-pine nursery-practices pine-silviculture tree-improvementpublication
Use of Systemic Fipronil and Imidacloprid to Control Regeneration Pests of Loblolly Pine; Chris Asaro and Jerre Creighton (published 2011 Entomological Society of America)
Use of Systemic Fipronil and Imidacloprid to Control Regeneration Pests of Loblolly Pine; Chris Asaro and Jerre Creighton (published 2011 Entomological Society of America)

Article written by Chris Asaro and Jerre Creighton with Virginia Department of Forestry for the Entomological Society of America regarding the use of systemic fipronil and imidacloprid to control regeneration pests of loblolly pine.

Viewresearch-resource-information resource-informationforest-health-impacts loblolly-pine pine-silviculturepublication

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