Trees and Shrubs to Protect Water Quality
Read about riparian forest buffers and how trees and shrubs protect water quality.
Forest Buffers in Urban Areas
Since early colonization in Virginia, settlement has clustered along waterfronts and many of these areas have grown into our major metropolitan centers today. Removal of streamside vegetation for changing land uses and infrastructure development has reduced the natural filtration of streams and other bodies of water. Many urban waterways have lost benefits for wildlife and passive recreation for people.
Local governments are faced with the challenge of planning riverfront re-development with residential, commercial, and industrial sites for economic growth, while also creating better river function for flood control and water supply. To achieve these goals, riparian buffers of trees, shrubs, grasses, and perennial ground covers can be restored along the rivers, streams, ponds, lakes, and other natural or man-made water features in developed areas.
To support clean water and healthy communities, DOF provides support to establish these riparian buffers, including project coordination, technical assistance, education, professional development, academic program support, and grants for specific projects.
Benefits of Urban Riparian Forest Buffers
Urbanization has adverse effects on the landscape, but the inherent benefits of riparian buffers can offset many of the effects of development.
- Social Benefits: includes (but not limited to) shade, clean air, clean water, community revitalization, community health and well-being, business district enhancement, and general aesthetics of the corridor.
- Recreation: camping, nature study, photography, hunting, and fishing.
- Stormwater Management: attained through riparian buffer function, including nutrient processing, pollutants trapping, and sediment storage.
- Wildlife Support: support natural predators of rodents and other pests, protect fish and wildlife habitat, and provide corridors for urban wildlife breeding and travel.
- Air and Water Quality: carbon sequestration in riparian forest buffers improves air quality; nitrogen and phosphorous pollutant reduction improves water quality.
- Economic Benefits: includes flood protection, reduced soil erosion, protection of public drinking water supplies, and tourism opportunities.
Planting Urban Forest Buffers
Establishing new riparian buffers on open land where they don’t currently exist, or expanding existing buffers provide many benefits described previously. Riparian forest buffer species include trees and shrubs adapted to tolerate periodic flooding and saturated soils.
DOF Seedling Nurseries grow riparian tree species for sale in our seedling store.
DOF provides assistance to landowners and communities in planning how best to establish a buffer. Steps often include getting the land ready (preparation), planting trees or ensuring natural seeding of new trees, and follow-up.
Get help with planting riparian forest buffers.
|Forest Research Review 2007-09|
Research reports and updates from ongoing DOF studies. In this issue: financial value of improved loblolly pine seedlings, loblolly pine planting density, white pine seedling handling and planting study, pre-commercial thinning of loblolly pine, riparian buffer planting success, and tree-of-heaven control methods.
|Forest Research Review 2012-08|
Research reports and updates from ongoing DOF studies. In this issue: effects of pruning in loblolly pine, effects of planting density and fertilizer on loblolly pine growth, varietal vs open-pollinated loblolly pine, biosolids for fertilizing loblolly pine, shortleaf pine provenance test, interplanting loblolly pine, tree shelter comparison for red oak in riparian buffers, crop tree release and fertilization of white oak and southern red oak.
|Forests and Water – Get the Most Out of Your Land||P00211|
Publication is directed to landowners to educate about forest buffers, stream water quality, watersheds, riparian buffer tax credit program and other programs that can assist. Printed copies available.
|Landowner Guide to Buffer Success|
This guide is created by Pennsylvania Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) partners and modified by the Chesapeake Bay Foundation to aid with buffer projects in Virginia. The guide features key tasks by season, tips to improve outcomes, example photos, summaries of how riparian forest buffers help streams, and links to resources.
|No. 126 Factors Limiting Early Development of Riparian Hardwood Plantings in Page, Shenandoah, Warren and Rockingham Counties in Virginia (2010-2013)||RR-126|
Thousands of hardwood seedlings are planted in Virginia every year through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP). The plantings are inspected initially and again two to three years later to monitor success. Report summarizes the results of those inspections and underscores the influence natural impacts and maintenance can have on the success of planting.
|Riparian Buffer Implementation Plan 2006-2010|
Report provides details of the implementation plan to support the Virginia Riparian Buffer Initiative.
|Riparian Buffers Tax Credit||P00123|
Brochure described the Riparian Buffers Tax Credit program, including who is eligible, how to sign up, application requirements, application approval, Buffer specifications, noncompliance, and inspections. Printed copies available.
|Riparian Forest Buffers – Forests on the Water’s Edge||P00140|
Publication is the effort of the Chesapeake Bay Program, including multiple states within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, to educate the community leaders and the public about the benefits of riparian forest Buffers, their importance to watersheds for air quality, water quality and fish and wildlife habitat, forest Buffer losses and how we manage growth in riparian zones, how to maintain quality riparian forest Buffers, efforts in riparian forest restoration, and what you can do for forest Buffers. Printed copies available.
|Riparian Forest Handbook 1 – Appreciating and Evaluating Stream Side Forests||No #|
Handbook is a valuable resource describing why riparian forests are important, evaluating the health of your riparian buffer, and determining how to restore your riparian forests.
|Success of Riparian Restoration Projects in the Mountains, Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Virginia|
Report provides results from a summer 2006 evaluation of 63 CREP sites located in the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Ridge and Valley regions of VA. Findings indicated that additional efforts should be made to ensure fencing is maintained, species selections are based on site conditions, and invasive species are controlled. Benjamin N. Bradburn, W. Michael Aust, Mathew B. Carroll, Dean Cumbia, and Jerre Creighton.
|Virginia’s Forestry Best Management Practices for Water Quality: Field Guide||P00134|
Technical field guide provides a convenient pocket instruction guide for timber harvesters to protect water quality when harvesting timber and comply with applicable laws. Printed copies available.
|Virginia’s Forestry Best Management Practices for Water Quality: Technical Manual||P00104|
Technical guide (5th edition) provides detailed instruction for timber harvesters to protect water quality when harvesting timber and comply with applicable laws. Printed copies available.
|Why Plant Forest Buffer? – Planting Riparian Forest Buffer is Real Forestry||FT0013|
Forestry topic information sheet emphasizes the importance of riparian Buffers to protect waterways, including what are riparian Buffers, riparian Buffer implementation, and cost-share programs available, such as the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP).
A variety of financial assistance programs are available through DOF and partner agencies for forest management activities to help protect water quality.
Your local DOF forester can provide guidance with planting riparian forest buffers. Contact your local DOF forester.